Then, copy that formula down for the rest of your stocks. But, as I said, dividends can make a huge contribution to the returns received for a particular stock. Also, you can insert charts and diagrams to understand the distribution of your investment portfolio, and what makes up your overall returns. If you have data on one sheet in Excel that you would like to copy to a different sheet, you can select, copy, and paste the data into a new location. A good place to start would be the Nasdaq Dividend History page. You should keep in mind that certain categories of bonds offer high returns similar to stocks, but these bonds, known as high-yield or junk bonds, also carry higher risk.
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We could generally divide forging into hot forging and cold forging. Hot forging is the forging process that the billets is pressed under hot temperature status, in other words, before deforming the billets, they need to be heated by medium frequency furnace first. There are also different types of hot forging , including open die forging, closed die forging and roll forging.
Open die forging, also named as free forging, is the hot forging method that shaping metals under the workforce of simple molds. Open die forging is specially used to produce large metal parts in simple shapes, like shafts. Tolerances of open die forging are loose, and the components by open die forging are more likely to be further machined. Closed die forging , also called impression die forging, is the popular hot forging method for small components different from open die forging refer to open die forging vs.
This kind of forging way is usually interchangeable with investment casting method for the same metal part, but closed die forging is better for its good strength and toughness. Roll forging is the forging process for round shaped parts, like rings, flanges, etc. Cold forging is another forging process that deforms the billets to required shapes directly under room temperature, this kind of forging is more suitable for small precision parts, like bolts and nut, gears, etc.
Cold forging deforms metal while it is below its recrystallization point. Cold forging is generally preferred when the metal is already a soft metal, like aluminum. This process is usually less expensive than hot forging and the end product requires little, if any, finishing work. Sometimes, when aluminum is cold forged into a desired shape, it is heat treated to strengthen the piece.
Casting could be generally separated into three types of different methods. They are investment casting, sand casting and die casting. Investment casting, also called precision casting, is the casting method for precision metal components, whose fuction is similar to closed die forging.
Investment casting is a manufacturing process in which a wax pattern is coated with a refractory ceramic material. Once the ceramic material is hardened its internal geometry takes the shape of the casting. The wax is melted out and molten metal is poured into the cavity where the wax pattern was.
The metal solidifies within the ceramic mold and then the metal casting is broken out. This manufacturing technique is also known as the lost wax process. Investment casting was developed over years ago and can trace its roots back to both ancient Egypt and China. Parts manufactured in industry by this process include dental fixtures, gears, cams, ratchets, jewelry, turbine blades, machinery components and other parts of complex geometry.
Sand casting , also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material. Sand castings are produced in specialized factories called foundries. Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is created using two hardened tool steel dies which have been machined into shape and work similarly to an injection mold during the process.
Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals, specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, pewter and tin-based alloys. Depending on the type of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chamber machine is used. The metal is less likely to shatter on contact with other objects for example, making forging highly suitable for items such as swords. This increased strength and durability is a result of the way in which the billet is forced into shape — by pressing or by hammering — during the forging process.
Following the pressing or hammering, the forging is cooled in water or oil. By the end of the process, the metal is stronger than it would have been had it been cast, for example. This results in metal forgings which are strongest along their longitudinal axis, while in other directions, the forging will be weaker. This differs from castings, which are isotropic and therefore have almost identical properties in all directions. It relies on either gravity or a vacuum to fill the mold until it hardens.
While this type of casting produces stronger castings, it can prove difficult to remove. This is why semi-permanent mold castings are also available, as they have expandable cores that make it easier to remove the castings. Why Use Castings? Castings are used to create a variety of components and parts that are large, intricate, or complicated for other processes to create. As long as castings are composed using the right alloys and using approved heat treatment methods, they are strong and high-quality, making them ideal for industries across the board.
The casting process is especially ideal for making parts with internal cavities. Using castings comes with noteworthy benefits such as: Wide range of alloy options No upper size limit when it comes to casting weight Cheaper tooling compared to other cheaper forge dies Casting alloys such as chrome and nickel can easily be added to production in their molten stages versus forgings that remain solid No issues forming intricate or complicated parts Smaller production runs There are nine primary industries that rely on castings including agriculture, defense, automotive, culinary , health care , paper, and construction.
Castings help form turbine wheels, railroad car frames, mining machinery, and many other parts that are used daily. What is Forging? Forging is another commonly used metal forming technique that heats up metal before it is hammered and worked into the final shape. The pounding action involved in forging to create the desired shape and results in unbroken grain flow in the metal.
This allows the metal to retain its strength; forgings are typically stronger than castings but there can be restrictions in terms of manufacturing capabilities. Forging can be completed if the metal is room temperature, a process referred to as cold forging.
Why Use Forging? Forging is a popular metal forming technique due to the uniform composition and structure it produces. Because the thermal cycle and deformation process cause metallurgical recrystallization, the resulting product is very strong. Some benefits of metal forgings include: Stronger and tougher than its alternatives Its ability to handle impact better than castings No porosity, shrinkage, or cold pour issues due to its nature The tight grain structure makes it mechanically strong, meaning there is less of a need to use expensive alloys to achieve strength High resistance to wear and tear Products have longer lifespans without being overly hard Nearly any metal has the ability to be forged, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals Generally speaking, if your end piece can be forged, it should be forged.
Doing so will result in a stronger, more consistent part that has a tighter grain structure. This product will have a longer lifespan compared to other manufacturing processes. With so many differences between casting and forging, it can be difficult to determine which is the better option.
10/18/ · Casting is what happens when you pour molten metal into a mould and let it cool and solidify; after this process the unit will have a shape very close to the finished product. . 8 rows · Difference Between Forging and Casting. Forging is a processing method in which metal is. 2/10/ · The cast item can be treated to improve metal plasticity and mechanical properties, but the strength and elasticity will be relatively lower than that of forgings of the same .