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Then, copy that formula down for the rest of your stocks. But, as I said, dividends can make a huge contribution to the returns received for a particular stock. Also, you can insert charts and diagrams to understand the distribution of your investment portfolio, and what makes up your overall returns. If you have data on one sheet in Excel that you would like to copy to a different sheet, you can select, copy, and paste the data into a new location. A good place to start would be the Nasdaq Dividend History page. You should keep in mind that certain categories of bonds offer high returns similar to stocks, but these bonds, known as high-yield or junk bonds, also carry higher risk.

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International law on armed conflict will enjoy primary consideration in the preparation and execution of military operations. It will consequently be necessary to instruct SANDF personnel, particularly at leadership level, on the relevant provisions of this law Chapter 3. Civil-military relations refer to the distribution of power and influence between the armed services and the civilian authority.

The Constitution contains the following provisions in this regard: 2. The committee shall be competent to investigate and make recommendations on the budget, functioning, organisation, armaments, policy, morale and state of preparedness of the SANDF, and to perform such other functions related to parliamentary supervision of the force as may be prescribed by law [[Articles 3. Parliament has a range of significant powers regarding military affairs. These powers include investigation, recommendation and supervision; approval of defence legislation and the defence budget; and review of the President's decisions to deploy the SANDF in critical functions.

The DOD respects the right and duty of Parliament to exercise independent and critical judgement on defence policy and practice. Nevertheless, the DOD looks forward to building a close and co-operative relationship with the parliamentary defence committees. To this end, the Department will engage in on-going communication with the committees in order to convey information and elicit comment.

Parliamentary and public scrutiny and debate will only be meaningful if there is sufficient transparency on military matters. Although a measure of secrecy will undoubtedly be necessary, the governing constitutional principle is 'freedom of information'.

Exceptions to this principle should be limited and specific, and will be dealt with in legislation. The ombudsperson would be an independent official who is appointed by, and reports to, Parliament. A number of parties have made proposals in this regard to the Constitutional Assembly. The RSA Intelligence White Paper and the intelligence legislation which has been promulgated emphasise the themes of an ethical code of conduct, the rule of law, parliamentary oversight and executive control in respect of the various intelligence agencies.

The Intelligence Division of the SANDF is also subject to the scrutiny of the Inspector General of the force and the co-ordinating mechanisms provided for in new intelligence legislation. The Ministry will ensure that a fair and acceptable balance is reached between the need to protect sensitive information and the demands for freedom of information in respect of intelligence activities.

The main functions of the Division are counter-intelligence and the gathering and analysis of external military information. The primary aim of the latter function is to provide the SANDF with advance warning of potential military threats, and thereby with maximum time for defence preparation. An effective intelligence capability is essential if force levels are to be kept to the lowest practical level in times of peace.

In co-operation with the national intelligence co-ordinating structures, the Ministry will seek to establish arrangements for sharing intelligence with other countries in order to facilitate continuous monitoring and evaluation of changes in the strategic environment. Southern African countries are a priority in this regard. As a general rule, the Division is not permitted to collect domestic military intelligence in a covert manner. However, where the SANDF is deployed internally in support of the police, the National Strategic Intelligence Act provides that the President may authorise the Division to engage in such collection in a specified geographical area for a specified duration.

In the interests of entrenching democratic civil-military relations, the President has issued a proclamation providing for the creation of a new Department which incorporates the SANDF and includes a civilian Defence Secretariat. The Defence Secretary is the principal accounting officer who manages the duties of the Secretariat.

They are co-chairpersons of the statutory Defence Staff Council which has advisory powers. They also serve on the statutory Council of Defence which is chaired by the Minister. The Minister and Deputy Minister constitute the civilian authority on military matters on behalf of the Executive. The Minister is accountable to Parliament for the defence function of government. In determining the respective functions of the Secretariat and Defence Headquarters, there are two basic guidelines: civilians formulate defence policy and the military executes this policy; and civilians are responsible for the political dimensions of defence.

This breakdown does not preclude senior officers from being seconded to work in the Secretariat on the basis of their functional expertise. It is the goal of the Minister to staff the Secretariat predominantly with civilians. As a transitional arrangement, however, the Secretariat will initially be comprised largely of officers transferred from Defence Headquarters in order to ensure continuity.

The challenge is to define and promote an approach to military professionalism which is consistent with democracy and the Constitution. More specifically, the desired professionalism of the full-time and part-time components of the SANDF includes the following political, ethical and organisational features: The operation of the Defence Force according to established policies, procedures and rules in times of war and peace.

Education and training programmes within the SANDF are a cardinal means of building and maintaining a high level of professionalism. In this regard the Interim Constitution provides that all members of the SANDF "shall be properly trained in order to comply with international standards of competency" [Article 5 ]. At the heart of training is the preparation of officers and other ranks to fulfil the SANDF's primary mission of defence against external military aggression.

In addition, special training programmes are required to standardise procedures following the integration of armies; to facilitate an equal opportunity programme and upgrade the skills of black soldiers Chapter 6 ; to meet the particular needs of an all-volunteer force Chapter 6 ; and to prepare for involvement in international peace operations Chapter 5. Training will also play an essential role in developing the political and ethical dimensions of military professionalism.

To this end, the Ministry will oversee the design and implementation of a programme on 'defence in a democracy'. The programme will cover the following subjects: the key elements of the political process in a democracy; the constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and defence; the significance of the Constitution as the highest law of the country; international law on armed conflict; and respect for multi-cultural diversity. This programme will extend to all members of the SANDF but will necessarily be tailored according to function and rank.

The programme will be integrated into all aspects of training rather than treated as an isolated subject. It will be applied to the military context through lectures, simulated exercises and case studies. The MOD recognises that the programme will have little value if misconduct is any way sanctioned by the military or civilian authority. The institutional culture of the SANDF will only be infused with respect for human rights and the rule of law if its members are subject to disciplinary action in the event of abuses.

Members of the SANDF, especially senior officers and instructors who train military personnel, are already being exposed to international law on armed conflict under the auspices of the International Committee of the Red Cross and the International Institute of Humanitarian Law. Such control is deemed vital because armed forces typically have a substantial capacity for organised violence. However, the government recognises that civil-military relations will only be stable if the requisite control is accompanied by the fulfillment of certain responsibilities towards the Defence Force and its members.

These responsibilities include the following: However, the government will supervise and exercise control over operations and preparations for operations through the Chief of the SANDF. Certain exceptions to this principle will be necessary because of the unique nature of military service. The exceptions will be limited and specific, and will be covered in defence legislation. The exceptions will also be subject to the constitutional provisions on limitation of fundamental rights.

Such limitations are only permissible if they are reasonable, justifiable in an open and democratic society, and do not negate the essential content of the right in question. Military personnel are entitled to vote and to be members of the political party of their choice. However, as noted above, the Interim Constitution provides that no member of the Permanent Force shall hold office in any political party or political organisation.

This provision will be applied strictly and its implications for military operations will be conveyed to all soldiers and officers in the course of their training and education. The question of international law on armed conflict is covered below.

For political, historical and geographic reasons, the emphasis lies mainly on the Southern African region. The ending of apartheid has given rise to dramatic changes in the external strategic environment from the perspective of South Africa. South Africa is in fact expected to play a leadership role in these forums, especially with regard to peace and security in Africa and Southern Africa.

In particular, there are expectations that South Africa will become involved in international peac e operations on the continent and sub-continent. The most significant strategic development over the past few years is South Africa's new status in Southern Africa, previously an arena of intense conflict. With the election of the Government of National Unity, relations with neighbouring states cha nged instantly from suspicion and animosity to friendship and co-operation.

The region as a whole has undergone substantial change since the end of the Cold War. Considerable progress has been made towards the resolution of internal conflicts, the establishment of democracy, and demilitarisation and disarmament.

The prospec ts for regional peace and stability are greater today than at any other time in recent decades. Nevertheless, much of the sub-continent is stricken by chronic underdevelopment and the attendant problems of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment.

There are large numbers of refugees and displaced people; an acute debt crisis; and rampant disease an d environmental degradation. Certain states remain politically volatile. The worst case scenario, as experienced most intensely in Angola and Mozambique, is civil war. These phenomena are not confined to national borders. They impact negatively on neighbouring states in the form of a range of non-military threats: environmental destruction, the spread of disease, the burden of refugees, and cross-border trafficking in drugs, stolen goods and small arms.

South Africa is not confronted by an immediate conventional military threat. The longer term future cannot be determined with any degree of certainty because international relations are unpredictable. They are characterised by conflicting national interests and competition around trade and natural resources.

There is the ris k of armed hostilities in some parts of the world, and a high level of political cohesion in others. Since the end of the Cold War there have been simultaneous tendencies towards the formation of regional blocs and the disintegration of states through ethnic and other types of conflict.

There is also a major fault line between the countries of the North and those of the South, as the latter become progressively poorer. This structural inequality has led increasingly to interference in national political and economic policies in the South by international financial institutions. The following conclusions are drawn from this overview of the external environment. The goals and strategies of this process will be spelt out in the Defence Review.

Such capability cannot be created from scratch if the need suddenly arises. The maintenance and development of weapons systems is necessaril y a long-term endeavour. The concept of a core defence capability is discussed in Chapter 5. Many suc h ventures are already underway. The question of regional security is dis cussed further below. Similarly, the prevention and management of inter- and intra-state conf lict is primarily a political and not a military matter.

Peace operations which involve the deployment of the SANDF may be necessary in such situations if political efforts to resolve the conflict are unsuccessful. Chapter 5. South Africa has already joined a number of multi-lateral arms control regimes. In essence, this will entail the SADC states shaping their political, security and defence policies in co-op eration with each other.

A common approach to security in Southern Africa is necessary for a number of reasons. First, many of the domestic threats to individual states are shared problems and impact negatively on the stability of neighbouring countries. Second, it is possible that inter-state disputes could emerge in relation to refugees, trade, foreign investment, natural resources and previously suppressed territorial claims. Third, since the sub-continent is politically volatile and its national and regional institutions are relatively weak, internal conflicts could give rise to cross-border tensions and hostilities.

This volatility and weakness also makes the region vul nerable to foreign interference and intervention. Common security arrangements would have many advantages in this context. They could facilitate the sharing of information and resources; the early warning of potential crises; joint problem-solving; implementing Confidence- and Security-Building Meas ures CSBMs ; negotiating security agreements and treaties; and resolving inter-state conflict through peaceful means.

Certain of these endeavours are the responsibility of the Department of Foreign Affairs. Chief amongst them is the settlement of conflict through preventive diplomacy, mediation or arbitration. Other types of activity, some of which are currently under discussion in the newly formed Association of Southern African States, will be undertaken by the DOD. First, regional defence co-operation could be promoted in the fields of logistics; training and education programmes; intelligence; combined exercises; mutual secondment of personnel; and the development of common doctrines and operational procedures.

Second, the government might be called upon by neighbouring countries to play a number of supportive roles. For example, the SANDF could provide assistance with respect to disaster relief; controlling cross-border trafficking in small arms; clearing minefields; military training; and maintaining and upgrading weaponry and equipment. These are measures which provide for greater transparency in military matters in order to alleviate possible mistrust and prevent misunderstandings from developing into crises.

Appropriate CSBMs might include the annual exchange of information on defence budgets and troop deployment; notification and on-site observation of specified military activities; verification procedures; a communications network; and means of dealing with unusual or unscheduled military incidents. South Africa shares the view of many of its neighbours that the creation of a standing peacekeeping force in the region is neither desirable nor practically feasible.

It is far more likely that the SADC countries will engage in ad-hoc peace operation s if the need arises. South Africa will support the conclusion of multi-lateral treaties on disarmament, conventional arms control, weapons of mass destruction and foreign military involvement in the region. The most important agreement would be a non-aggression pact whic h endorses the international prohibition on the threat or use of force.

Given South Africa's overwhelming military superiority on the sub-continent, the adoption of a defensive and non-threatening posture would contribute to building confidence and positive relationships. Further, reductions in force levels and weapons holdings might stimulate a broader process of disarmament in Southern Africa.

This would release resources for development and thereby promote stability. However, force reductions should be kept within reasonable proportions if South Africa is to play a leadership role in the region. Finally, it is the view of government that South Africa has a common destiny with Southern Africa.

Domestic peace and stability will not be achieved in a context of regional instability and poverty. It is therefore in South Africa's long-term securi ty interests to pursue mutually beneficial relations with other SADC states and to promote reconstruction and development throughout the region.

First, as noted in Chapter 2, there is an overwhelming need for socio-economic development and reconstruction in order to address the root causes of much personal insecur ity and social instability. This is a moral obligation and a strategic imperative.

Second, the country is characterised by endemic crime which effects all sectors of society. The government is tackling this problem chiefly through efforts to improve the criminal justice system, community policing and crime prevention strategies. A long-term solution lies in upgrading the conditions of impoverished communities through the RDP. Third, there has been a considerable reduction in the level of public and political violence since the elections in April Nevertheless, violence in many parts of the country remains unacceptably high and poses a serious threat to public order a nd the security of citizens.

However, given the relative shortage of police personnel, large numbers of troops are currently deployed to assist them. This tendency is undesirable b ut it is likely to continue for the foreseeable future Chapter 5. It is the policy of government that the above functions do not carry equal weight.

The other functions are secondary. The size, design, structure and budget of the SANDF will therefore be determined mainly by its primary mission. However, provision will have to be made for the special requirements of internal deployment and international peace operations. The rest of this Chapter considers the various functions of the Defence Force in more detail.

South Africa will employ the following principal strategies to this end: 5. In this context, a common security regime, regional defence co-operation and confidence- and security-building measures in Southern Africa are particularly important 5. Conflict resolution, in the form of diplomacy, mediation or arbitration, may take place on a bilateral basis or under the auspices of an international or regional body.

The use or threat of force against external military aggression is a legitimate measure of last resort when political solutions have been exhausted. It is clear from the above that the government's preferred and primary course of action is to prevent conflict and war. South Africa will only turn to military means when deterrence and non-violent strategies have failed. Deterrence requires the existence of a defence capability which is sufficiently credible to inhibit potential aggressors.

Although South Africa is not confronted by any foreseeable external military threat, this capability cannot be turned on and off like a tap. It is therefore necessary to maintain a core defence capability. A core defence capability includes a sustainable nucleus with the following features: 8.

This "core force" approach takes account of government spending priorities and the fact that the self-defence problem is likely to be limited in the short- to medium-term. It does not require a large standing force. The Defence Review will address in more detail the implications of the core force approach for the size, doctrine, posture, structure, weaponry and equipment of the SANDF.

The Review will also address the strategic and technical implications of the constitutional provision that the SANDF shall be "primarily defensive in the exercise or performance of its powers and functions". As noted earlier, the adoption of a defensive and non-threatening military posture will contribute to promoting positive relationships and confidence in Southern Africa.

Nevertheless, the history of South Africa and many other countries suggests that it is inappropriate to utilise armed forces in a policing role on a permanent or semi-permanent basis. This perspective is based on the following considerations: Particularism was strongest in colonies with no Indian frontier. This frontier stretched along the western border like a cord of union. The Indian was a common danger, demanding united action.

Most celebrated of these conferences was the Albany congress of , called to treat with the Six Nations, and to consider plans of union. Even a cursory reading of the plan proposed by the congress reveals the importance of the frontier. The powers of the general council and the officers were, chiefly, the determination of peace and war with the Indians, the regulation of Indian trade, the purchase of Indian lands, and the creation and government of new settlements as a security against the Indians.

It is evident that the unifying tendencies of the Revolutionary period were facilitated by the previous cooperation in the regulation of the frontier. In this connection may be mentioned the importance of the frontier, from that day to this, as a military training school, keeping alive the power of resistance to aggression, and developing the stalwart and rugged qualities of the frontiersman.

The experience of the Carolina cowpens guided the ranchers of Texas. The effect of these great ranches on the subsequent agrarian history of the localities in which they existed should be studied. In part this is due to Indian resistance, in part to the location of river valleys and passes, in part to the unequal force of the centers of frontier attraction. Among the important centers of attraction may be mentioned the following: fertile and favorably situated soils, salt springs, mines, and army posts.

Army Posts The frontier army post, serving to protect the settlers from the Indians, has also acted as a wedge to open the Indian country, and has been a nucleus for settlement. But all the more important expeditions were greatly indebted to the earliest pathmakers, the Indian guides, the traders and trappers, and the French voyageurs, who were inevitable parts of governmental expeditions from the days of Lewis and Clarke.

Salt Springs In an interesting monograph, Victor Hehn [31] has traced the effect of salt upon early European development, and has pointed out how it affected the lines of settlement and the form of administration. A similar study might be made for the salt springs of the United States. The early settlers were tied to the coast by the need of salt, without which they could not preserve their meats or live in comfort.

An annual pilgrimage to the coast for salt thus became essential. Taking flocks or furs and ginseng root, the early settlers sent their pack trains after seeding time each year to the coast. But when discovery was made of the salt springs of the Kanawha, and the Holston, and Kentucky, and central New York, the West began to be freed from dependence on the coast. It was in part the effect of finding these salt springs that enabled settlement to cross the mountains. From the time the mountains rose between the pioneer and the seaboard, a new order of Americanism arose.

The West and the East began to get out of touch of each other. The settlements from the sea to the mountains kept connection with the rear and had a certain solidarity. But the overmountain men grew more and more independent. The East took a narrow view of American advance, and nearly lost these men. Kentucky and Tennessee history bears abundant witness to the truth of this statement.

The East began to try to hedge and limit westward expansion. Though Webster could declare that there were no Alleghanies in his politics, yet in politics in general they were a very solid factor. Land The exploitation of the beasts took hunter and trader to the west, the exploitation of the grasses took the rancher west, and the exploitation of the virgin soil of the river valleys and prairies attracted the farmer. The land hunger of the Virginians drew them down the rivers into Carolina, in early colonial days; the search for soils took the Massachusetts men to Pennsylvania and to New York.

As the eastern lands were taken up migration flowed across them to the west. Daniel Boone, the great backwoodsman, who combined the occupations of hunter, trader, cattle-raiser, farmer, and surveyor—learning, probably from the traders, of the fertility of the lands on the upper Yadkin, where the traders were wont to rest as they took their way to the Indians, left his Pennsylvania home with his father, and passed down the Great Valley road to that stream.

Learning from a trader whose posts were on the Red River in Kentucky of its game and rich pastures, he pioneered the way for the farmers to that region. Thence he passed to the frontier of Missouri, where his settlement was long a landmark on the frontier. Here again he helped to open the way for civilization, finding salt licks, and trails, and land.

His son was among the earliest trappers in the passes of the Rocky Mountains, and his party are said to have been the first to camp on the present site of Denver. His grandson, Col. Boone, of Colorado, was a power among the Indians of the Rocky Mountains, and was appointed an agent by the Government.

It is quite immaterial whether he ever becomes the owner of the soil. He builds his cabin, gathers around him a few other families of similar tastes and habits, and occupies till the range is somewhat subdued, and hunting a little precarious, or, which is more frequently the case, till the neighbors crowd around, roads, bridges, and fields annoy him, and he lacks elbow room.

The next class of emigrants purchase the lands, add field to field, clear out the roads, throw rough bridges over the streams, put up hewn log houses with glass windows and brick or stone chimneys, occasionally plant orchards, build mills, schoolhouses, court-houses, etc. Another wave rolls on. The men of capital and enterprise come. The settler is ready to sell out and take the advantage of the rise in property, push farther into the interior and become, himself, a man of capital and enterprise in turn.

The small village rises to a spacious town or city; substantial edifices of brick, extensive fields, orchards, gardens, colleges, and churches are seen. Broadcloths, silks, leghorns, crapes, and all the refinements, luxuries, elegancies, frivolities, and fashions are in vogue. Thus wave after wave is rolling westward; the real Eldorado is still farther on.

A portion of the two first classes remain stationary amidst the general movement, improve their habits and condition, and rise in the scale of society. The writer has traveled much amongst the first class, the real pioneers. He has lived many years in connection with the second grade; and now the third wave is sweeping over large districts of Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. Migration has become almost a habit in the west. Hundreds of men can be found, not over 50 years of age, who have settled for the fourth, fifth, or sixth time on a new spot.

To sell out and remove only a few hundred miles makes up a portion of the variety of backwoods life and manners. Obviously the immigrant was attracted by the cheap lands of the frontier, and even the native farmer felt their influence strongly. Year by year the farmers who lived on soil whose returns were diminished by unrotated crops were offered the virgin soil of the frontier at nominal prices. Their growing families demanded more lands, and these were dear.

The competition of the unexhausted, cheap, and easily tilled prairie lands compelled the farmer either to go west and continue the exhaustion of the soil on a new frontier, or to adopt intensive culture. Thus the census of shows, in the Northwest, many counties in which there is an absolute or a relative decrease of population.

These States have been sending farmers to advance the frontier on the plains, and have themselves begun to turn to intensive farming and to manufacture. A decade before this, Ohio had shown the same transition stage. Thus the demand for land and the love of wilderness freedom drew the frontier ever onward. Having now roughly outlined the various kinds of frontiers, and their modes of advance, chiefly from the point of view of the frontier itself, we may next inquire what were the influences on the East and on the Old World.

A rapid enumeration of some of the more noteworthy effects is all that I have time for. Composite Nationality First, we note that the frontier promoted the formation of a composite nationality for the American people. The coast was preponderantly English, but the later tides of continental immigration flowed across to the free lands.

This was the case from the early colonial days. With these peoples were also the freed indented servants, or redemptioners, who at the expiration of their time of service passed to the frontier. In the crucible of the frontier the immigrants were Americanized, liberated, and fused into a mixed race, English in neither nationality or characteristics.

The process has gone on from the early days to our own. In the middle of the present century the German element in Wisconsin was already so considerable that leading publicists looked to the creation of a German state out of the commonwealth by concentrating their colonization.

Industrial Independence In another way the advance of the frontier decreased our dependence on England. The coast, particularly of the South, lacked diversified industries, and was dependent on England for the bulk of its supplies. In the South there was even a dependence on the Northern colonies for articles of food. This no doubt diminishes the number of shipping and the appearance of our trade, but it is far from being a detriment to us.

Writers have discussed the subjects of tariff, land, and internal improvement, as subsidiary to the slavery question. But when American history comes to be rightly viewed it will be seen that the slavery question is an incident. In the period from the end of the first half of the present century to the close of the civil war slavery rose to primary, but far from exclusive, importance. But this does not justify Dr.

Even so recent a writer as Rhodes, in his History of the United States since the compromise of , has treated the legislation called out by the western advance as incidental to the slavery struggle. This is a wrong perspective. The pioneer needed the goods of the coast, and so the grand series of internal improvement and railroad legislation began, with potent nationalizing effects. Over internal improvements occurred great debates, in which grave constitutional questions were discussed.

Sectional groupings appear in the votes, profoundly significant for the historian. Loose construction increased as the nation marched westward. The disposition of the public lands was a third important subject of national legislation influenced by the frontier. The Public Domain The public domain has been a force of profound importance in the nationalization and development of the Government.

The effects of the struggle of the landed and the landless States, and of the ordinance of , need no discussion. The purchase of Louisiana was perhaps the constitutional turning point in the history of the Republic, inasmuch as it afforded both a new area for national legislation and the occasion of the downfall of the policy of strict construction.

But the purchase of Louisiana was called out by frontier needs and demands. As frontier States accrued to the Union the national power grew. In a speech on the dedication of the Calhoun monument Mr. The policy of the United States in dealing with its lands is in sharp contrast with the European system of scientific administration.

Efforts to make this domain a source of revenue, and to withhold it from emigrants in order that settlement might be compact, were in vain. The jealousy and the fears of the East were powerless in the face of the demands of the frontiersmen. Benton was the author of this system, which he brought forward as a substitute for the American system of Mr.

Clay, and to supplant him as the leading statesman of the West. Clay, by his tariff compromise with Mr. Calhoun, abandoned his own American system. At the same time he brought forward a plan for distributing among all the States of the Union the proceeds of the sales of the public lands. His bill for that purpose passed both Houses of Congress, but was vetoed by President Jackson, who, in his annual message of December, , formally recommended that all public lands should be gratuitously given away to individual adventurers and to the States in which the lands are situated.

But this legislation was framed under frontier influences, and under the lead of Western statesmen like Benton and Jackson. But it was not merely in legislative action that the frontier worked against the sectionalism of the coast. The economic and social characteristics of the frontier worked against sectionalism.

The men of the frontier had closer resemblances to the Middle region than to either of the other sections. Pennsylvania had been the seed-plot of frontier emigration, and, although she passed on her settlers along the Great Valley into the west of Virginia and the Carolinas, yet the industrial society of these Southern frontiersmen was always more like that of the Middle region than like that of the tide-water portion of the South, which later came to spread its industrial type throughout the South.

The Middle region, entered by New York harbor, was an open door to all Europe. The tide-water part of the South represented typical Englishmen, modified by a warm climate and servile labor, and living in baronial fashion on great plantations; New England stood for a special English movement—Puritanism. The Middle region was less English than the other sections. It had a wide mixture of nationalities, a varied society, the mixed town and county system of local government, a varied economic life, many religious sects.

It represented that composite nationality which the contemporary United States exhibits, that juxtaposition of non-English groups, occupying a valley or a little settlement, and presenting reflections of the map of Europe in their variety. It was typical of the modern United States. It was least sectional, not only because it lay between North and South, but also because with no barriers to shut out its frontiers from its settled region, and with a system of connecting waterways, the Middle region mediated between East and West as well as between North and South.

Thus it became the typically American region. Even the New Englander, who was shut out from the frontier by the Middle region, tarrying in New York or Pennsylvania on his westward march, lost the acuteness of his sectionalism on the way.

Before this process revealed its results the western portion of the South, which was akin to Pennsylvania in stock, society, and industry, showed tendencies to fall away from the faith of the fathers into internal improvement legislation and nationalism. In the Virginia convention of —30, called to revise the constitution, Mr.

Leigh, of Chesterfield, one of the tide-water counties, declared: One of the main causes of discontent which led to this convention, that which had the strongest influence in overcoming our veneration for the work of our fathers, which taught us to contemn the sentiments of Henry and Mason and Pendleton, which weaned us from our reverence for the constituted authorities of the State, was an overweening passion for internal improvement.

I say this with perfect knowledge, for it has been avowed to me by gentlemen from the West over and over again. And let me tell the gentleman from Albemarle Mr. Gordon that it has been another principal object of those who set this ball of revolution in motion, to overturn the doctrine of State rights, of which Virginia has been the very pillar, and to remove the barrier she has interposed to the interference of the Federal Government in that same work of internal improvement, by so reorganizing the legislature that Virginia, too, may be hitched to the Federal car.

It was this nationalizing tendency of the West that transformed the democracy of Jefferson into the national republicanism of Monroe and the democracy of Andrew Jackson. The West of the war of , the West of Clay, and Benton, and Harrison, and Andrew Jackson, shut off by the Middle States and the mountains from the coast sections, had a solidarity of its own with national tendencies.

Interstate migration went steadily on—a process of cross-fertilization of ideas and institutions. The fierce struggle of the sections over slavery on the western frontier does not diminish the truth of this statement; it proves the truth of it. Slavery was a sectional trait that would not down, but in the West it could not remain sectional.

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Ut markets forex peace army relative strength The next class of emigrants purchase the lands, add field to field, clear out the roads, throw rough bridges over the streams, put up hewn log houses with glass windows and brick or stone chimneys, occasionally plant orchards, build mills, schoolhouses, court-houses, etc. South Africa will only turn to military means when deterrence and non-violent strategies have failed. There are some exceptions to this general rule, such as disaster relief and search and rescue activities. These responsibilities include the following: Thus far the process of integration has not been easy or trouble-free. Deployment in an internal policing capacity shall be limited to exceptional circumstances and subject to parliamentary safeguards.
Musicas loubet insana international placement Mobility of population is death to localism, and the western frontier worked irresistibly in unsettling population. Second, it is possible that inter-state disputes could emerge in relation to refugees, trade, foreign investment, natural resources and previously suppressed territorial claims. Land The exploitation of the beasts took hunter and trader to the west, the exploitation of the grasses took the rancher west, and the exploitation of the virgin soil of the river valleys and prairies attracted the farmer. It is like the steady growth of a complex nervous system for the originally simple, inert continent. Writers have discussed the subjects of tariff, land, and internal improvement, as subsidiary to the slavery question.
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If possible, justify your answers up on live trading experience with them. Thank you! I am afraid i cannot recommend any broker in particular, because we are broker-neutral platform. You can see some details of connection to each of them here. I believe other customers will let you know about their experience. Post by andywill » Wed May 21, pm Hi everyone! Post by Gargoyle » Wed May 21, pm Hi everyone! In fact, I would like to read some personal shared experience and review of a MultiCharts user with some of those brokers About Interactive Brokers with a search on this forum you will see that there is also a systematic disconnection of IB server, but I have not tested the behavior of MultiCharts with a forex signal H24, so I will leave any users clarify this point.

To conclude, there remains only AvaTrade, I prefer not to comment and I'll let you discover From your reply, you are testifying that there is no "gold medalist" in the supported Forex Brokers in Multicharts for automatic trading MultiCharts is not recovering automatically the historical datas in case of temporary disconnections?!

So automatic trading would be compromised in such a case..?! Post by StratMan » Wed May 21, pm MultiCharts is not recovering automatically the historical datas in case of temporary disconnections?! Post by Gargoyle » Wed May 21, pm MultiCharts is not recovering automatically the historical datas in case of temporary disconnections?!

Post by StratMan » Wed May 21, pm The main problem is not to be in front of the computer but is to close all the open trades and the pending orders on MultiCharts and on the broker desktop before the restart So imagine the problem if you have 5 or 6 portfolio, 15 or 20 pairs of currencies, and N or M accounts to manage And the restart is not always clean and sometime there are gaps on several pairs, so it needs a reload of data to fill the gaps.

Post by Gargoyle » Wed May 21, pm The main problem is not to be in front of the computer but is to close all the open trades and the pending orders on MultiCharts and on the broker desktop before the restart And the restart is not always clean and sometime there are gaps on several pairs, so it needs a reload to fill the gaps.

They provide historical data for downloading on their own website. Post by Gargoyle » Wed May 21, pm you can find historical data of Dukascopy. Forget where I got it.. Duk's data is horrible. They're a great broker with high spread costs so ask for custom spreads. They gladly give them once asked. Post by tcat » Thu May 22, am Regarding Duka, it is obvious that Multichart is not a strategic platform for them. Duka choosed to focus on their Jforex platform which does not provide the convenience MC has for developing strategies and backtesting.

Regarding historical data, Jforex provides a convenient way to access it and export it, assuming you work by reasonable trunk of period and outside trading sessions connections tend to be cut after a while. Personally, Duka puts too much emphasis on their "Miss contest" and not enough on providing a real solution linked to MC. Their spread does sometime increase consequently however.

Although I only worked with testing accounts on LMAX so far, I have to say that both their MTF technology and latency, the fact that this no ECN or market maker, and the level of integration with MC would make it the ideal platform for spot fX, assuming identified issues data lag, disconnections are solved. They Answered: Thank you for your email and interest in Dukacopy.

You're analysis is correct in principle. There may be some shortcomings and those questions should be directed to the software vendor directly. Please be reminded that Dukascopy provides you with accounts, live trading services and the book-keeping of all transactions, etc. We also offer reports, Dukascopy platforms and electronic means to connect to your account in order to trade, consulkt and manage your account held at our Bank. Multichart has developed the link to our environment in order to be able to market their software.

It is in their responsibility that the development is done in a way that it can be used by clients. We have developed JF API which in the present case may be the more suitable option to connect a trading account, but it must be left to the service provider to develop such connection. It is not yet scheduled for any particular version of MC. There is also option to merge 2 different data sources on chart.

Also if there are ways to import charts, the problem is that I need to wait up to midnight to have the Dukascopy ticks available So I can't consider trading with Dukascopy Fix Api at all. If anybody here is trading automatic strategies via DC Fix Api, please show yourself, and explain how you do it So am I forced to consider only Interactive Brokers in order to trade automatically forex with MultiCharts?! The supported brokers MC list created in me the expectation there was a wider range of choice for good Forex Brokers for this platform!

What should I do in order to have these historical data? Yes there were a few hicups with the data dropping out and not recovering but I haven't had these issues for months hope I don't jinx myself here! Lmax has fast execution, good fills and good service from what I've found. I also asked for a commissions discount and they gave it to me I wanted to try Dukascopy but unfortunately they have no live backfill.

Still have my account with them hoping that one day this will come. Considering there a few threads popping up now regarding Multicharts and Forex brokers maybe this will happen soon! Even put money in my account and then just withdrew it without executing a single trade. I will never consider FXCM while there are alternatives. The company is dodgy and have been fined due to dodgy practices!

Maybe they've cleaned up their act, or maybe they're just a bit better at covering their tracks but something you'd want to make sure you're monitoring, but why risk going with them considering their history! In this game the odds are already stacked against you so why bother with these sorts of companies! Plus their spreads are shit! Post by StratMan » Sat May 24, pm I also created an account with Interactive Brokers but never got around to trading live as there is some weird thing with how their data is provided to MC.

Post by Gargoyle » Sun May 25, am In fact I am looking for a Forex MultiCharts supplier, with no problems in connection between its data flow and the platform, with historical data available so I may backtest and reload them in case of lost connection and good reputation.. I would like to hear all that from some MultiCharts user, being able to "live" it for a while in first person My goal is forex automatic trading at intraday regime Thank you!!!

Post by t-rader » Sun May 25, am I also created an account with Interactive Brokers but never got around to trading live as there is some weird thing with how their data is provided to MC. Sincerely, Andy. Post by Gargoyle » Fri May 30, pm Well, after reading the last posts and other posts of the forum, I still can't see a crystal clear choice for Forex Broker supplier in MultiCharts Please again, if you trade regularly the Forex with automatic trading strategies in MultiCharts, share your experience here Post by andywill » Fri May 30, pm Well, after reading the last posts and other posts of the forum, I still can't see a crystal clear choice for Forex Broker supplier in MultiCharts Last edited by andywill on Sat May 31, pm, edited 2 times in total.

Post by StratMan » Fri May 30, pm 6. Some MT Brokers do offer this. So you have a direct connection to NY4 or LD4 datacenters with the lowest latency you can have. I want to be objectively here. Dear Stratman, Some MT brokers show which liquidity provider they use and some not. I do not want to put a list here but you can investigate yourself. If Multicharts would have an integrated bridge with MT you could easily try, test and trade with those Liquidity providers because brokers have solutions already built here.

So its only up to Multicharts engineers. But this topic is another thread viewtopic. Post by StratMan » Fri May 30, pm I would say the following rank table from the current forex broker Multicharts does offer looks like that kind : 1. LMAX 2. MB Trading 3. Dukascopy 4. OEC 6. IW Bank 7. It is even more ridiculous since MultiCharts does have a FIX protocol adapter already written, and all they need to do is to customize it according to the ECN's spec. We are all waiting for it, yet there's less and less hope that it will ever be realized.

My personal opinion is that your platform is very good and that is used widely in Equities, Commodities, Bonds and Futures, but not for professional Forex trading. Other brokers are very retail based and highly unreliable. Post by Andrew MultiCharts » Tue Jun 03, pm Please allow me two further questions: 1 Are you planning to add any new forex broker in the next future in your platform? Thank you in advance! Post by Gargoyle » Tue Jun 03, pm Please allow me two further questions: 1 Are you planning to add any new forex broker in the next future in your platform?

Do you think it could be solved soon? Post by khalaad » Thu Jun 05, am StratMan: From your reply, you are testifying that there is no "gold medalist" in the supported Forex Brokers in Multicharts for automatic trading Post by Gargoyle » Thu Jun 05, pm StratMan: From your reply, you are testifying that there is no "gold medalist" in the supported Forex Brokers in Multicharts for automatic trading Post by khalaad » Thu Jun 05, pm StratMan: From your reply, you are testifying that there is no "gold medalist" in the supported Forex Brokers in Multicharts for automatic trading I find it to be better than the competition by a long shot.

Just pick your broker well because the connections to the FX brokers are questionable. FXCM was the only one I trusted. MB Trading connection is okay now.. I'm unsure what you're looking for? A bulletproof connection? You won't find that with any platform or broker.. We always monitor our strategies and deal with issues on a daily basis. That's just how things are. The trillion dollar banks have rooms full of people doing just that and they invest billions in their trading infrastructure.

Have you tried any other platforms? I have And of course, that are able to reload the missing history in the gap made during the disconenction? If some trader could indicate me this same information, it could be great!! Last edited by MAtricks on Thu Jun 05, pm, edited 1 time in total. Post by MAtricks » Thu Jun 05, pm I gave you everything you asked for in post 16 and a few others answered you as well. However, we're now on post 59 and you're still asking the same questions What's going on?

Post by Gargoyle » Thu Jun 05, pm I gave you everything you asked for in post 16 and a few others answered you as well. It seems as though you've completely missed the 40 something replies from every helpful individual here. You asked if MC was going to connect with institutional level FX brokers - this was answered. I spent years in the trenches of losing money to these brokers to be able to give you this information freely What else are you looking for??

This thread is a hodgepodge of disorganized inquiries. Answer: FXCM! Answer: MB Trading! Question: Should I autotrade without monitoring? Answer: No! Question: Should I restart my platform once a day and restart my machine once a week? Answer: Yes! Question: Will I have issues with disconnections, orders being misplaced, and strategies not working? You WILL have these issues, you better be there when it happens. Question: Are FX brokers scam artists? There is next to no regulation in the FX market.

They will find any way they can to make money from your account balance. Question: Where did you learn all of this? Answer: Years of personal experience! No one answered my questions. Post by Gargoyle » Thu Jun 05, pm Please read everything again Post by MAtricks » Thu Jun 05, pm So I am asking if somebody knows a forex broker for MC, which has available history, and that is able to recovery alone after a disconnection, without MC restarting, and successfully reloading the missing history during the disconnection.

Its the only one I'd use nowadays. I didn't experience it going down on me at all. Just ask and they'll give you a great deal. So great! What else would you want? I'm not defending them. We're just sifting through the best of the worst.

FX brokers are garbage.. There's one reason they started their business - to take their customers accounts. I didn't have issues with the connection, but I'll admit that its been several months since I've been with them. I was with MB for years and their connectivity issues cleared up with a lot of hard work. The only reason I'm not still using these brokers is because of the FX industry as a whole.

Back-testing just isn't a reliable feature when the brokers have all the control in the world to manipulate their historical data so we end up testing on data that never actually happened. Once I saw how drastic this issue was, I jumped ship. Post by khalaad » Sat Jun 07, am Thank you, Josh. You have saved me lot of time and effort.

Now I shall have a freer Sunday! That's the problem I think with any attempt by users to add a new broker themselves: this cannot be done without being somewhat of a data manager. Now I hope that someone responds and says I have it wrong and that there is a good solution. I'm all ears for that. What surprises me, and now I'm getting somewhat off-topic, is why MultiCharts does not provide a C interface for broker and data connections. There are already several MultiCharts traders who are familiar with that language i.

NET , so wouldn't a collaboration between the community and MultiCharts be an option? Sure, with crappy connections nobody is served. But if users test this themselves, then submit their source code to MultiCharts for further testing and including it in the official platform, quality is probably just as good as with the existing connections. Judging from the number of new connections added recently, I don't have the impression that charging for this is a big cash cow for MultiCharts.

I know this is easier said than done, but in the current situation the list of brokers and data feeds only grows very little, if any. With Zen-Fire removed in MC9. Just to clarify, this post is 'food for thought' and not a complaint; I'm already satisfied with the brokers and data feeds offered. But in the case of non-Western countries as Khalid points out , the current offering might be limited.

Ironically, aren't those countries the biggest growth market for trading? Post by StratMan » Sat Jun 07, am While MultiCharts continue to scale new highs on the technical front, I hope I will be forgiven for expressing my doubts concerning their business acumen. Post by khalaad » Sat Jun 07, pm While MultiCharts continue to scale new highs on the technical front, I hope I will be forgiven for expressing my doubts concerning their business acumen.

Last edited by JoshM on Sat Jun 07, pm, edited 1 time in total. MC is a fantastic competitor and its potential its well beyond the competing platforms. However, not many know about it. I can't count how many people I've "sold" on this platform who have never heard of it before The other leading retail platforms concentrate on advertising.

MC concentrates on their product. Post by t-rader » Mon Jun 09, am I'm unsure what you're looking for? Post by Gargoyle » Mon Jun 09, pm While MultiCharts continue to scale new highs on the technical front, I hope I will be forgiven for expressing my doubts concerning their business acumen. I used MC to trade FX for 3 years.

I had a few issues mostly because I didn't know how to use the platform , but they were cleared up with some work with the MC team. Works great.. MC was the most reliable of the bunch.. Good luck on your hunt for the perfect FX platform. Post by Gargoyle » Tue Jun 10, am Funny Some will learn it the easy way, some will learn it the hard way, but everybody will learn, it just takes time. Post by Gargoyle » Tue Jun 10, am I'm unsure what you're looking for?

Post by khalaad » Tue Jun 10, am Gargoyle, Trading is a very personal, and nuanced, activity. Different traders have differing needs. Therefore, my sincere advise to you is to please quietly do your exploration and then follow through with whatever you find meeting your needs. And trade smallest until you are comfortable. MultiCharts, I am confident, will one day meet your needs; I should think the new 9.

Post by khalaad » Tue Jun 10, am One day, everybody will learn the meaning of "bucket shop". You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post. Post by TJ » Tue Jun 10, am But isn't MultiCharts in the business of selling its software catered to the wished of their potential users, as opposed to filtering out "bucket shops"? Post by khalaad » Tue Jun 10, pm One day, everybody will learn the meaning of "bucket shop".

Post by khalaad » Tue Jun 10, pm True, but for certain broker connections that is not the case. So if MultiCharts want, they could. Based on the past discussions on the forum, this is not the lack of effort on MC's part. If more traders knew about and wanted MC, these brokers would help out with the connection. As a believer in the platform, help out where you can. And IB, indeed, offers 82 Forex pairs. But the selection of those 82 from a trader's point of view leaves much to be desired.

Don't do it. Seeing as the volume is specific to only orders cleared through them. And they have the power within the lack of regulations to alter this data to better their bottom line. Post by khalaad » Wed Jun 11, am I guess it depends on your broker Last edited by khalaad on Wed Jun 11, am, edited 1 time in total. Who are the two data providers?

The relative strength analysis looks at all of these factors. The past trends in the Forex are also taken into consideration, but are not the only thing that is looked at when forecasting this type of market. The relative strength analysis compares all foreign currency and the exchange rates every day.

The report will then be sorted by their strength rating and ranked according the previous week's rating. This report relies on at least 45 weeks of data so that sustained growth can be seen with ease. Using this analysis promises to be one of the most valuable tools of forecast the trends in the Forex. In addition, it can show the rating of stocks and rate them into which ones are the strongest. The stock market has a direct relation to the foreign exchange market because it reflects current trends in buying and selling, which will increase or decrease the value of currency.

The current trend in predicting the trends in the Forex is to use not only the relative strength analysis, but to also look at other factors such as the stock market barometers and economic factors. When investors and brokers look into all of these factors when forecasting the Forex, it makes for a highly reliable means of predicting trends.

This can be the vital difference between making money and losing money on the foreign exchange market. When using the relative strength analysis in relation to the foreign currency exchange, it is possible to tell which markets are performing well and which ones are not. The key is finding the markets and currency that are moving up on the ranking scale. It is important to remember that like stocks, the Forex is affected by a variety of factors. The relative strength analysis can help investors find which ones are good investments.

This report is based mostly on a stock's closing price and the relative strength analysis is based on gains and losses. The report can calculate the markets report for any period in time.

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