Then, copy that formula down for the rest of your stocks. But, as I said, dividends can make a huge contribution to the returns received for a particular stock. Also, you can insert charts and diagrams to understand the distribution of your investment portfolio, and what makes up your overall returns. If you have data on one sheet in Excel that you would like to copy to a different sheet, you can select, copy, and paste the data into a new location. A good place to start would be the Nasdaq Dividend History page. You should keep in mind that certain categories of bonds offer high returns similar to stocks, but these bonds, known as high-yield or junk bonds, also carry higher risk.

Some always resolve in one roll and others may take many rolls. The standard definition of the house edge is the ratio of the expected player loss to the initial wager. Almost every legitimate gambling writer counts pushes in this calculation. However, in craps it often takes many rolls to resolve a bet, with the player being allowed to take down the bet at any time until it wins or loses. Should such meaningless rolls, that don't effect the outcome, be treated as the wager pushing?

Compared to other casino games, that would be the consistent thing to do. However, craps players usually leave such bets up until they are resolved. The question gambling writers must face is whether to count meaningless rolls as a push in calculating the house edge, or wait until the wager is resolved. After much thought, I have decided to express the house edge in craps three ways: Per bet made counting pushes.

Per bet resolved not counting pushes. Per roll house edge per bet resolved divided by average number of rolls. In all forms of gambling I try to teach the player to make the best bets. In my opinion, the best bets in craps are those with a low "per roll" house edge.

Pass The Pass is the most fundamental bet in craps; almost every player at the table bets on it. If you only understand one bet in craps, it should be this one. The Pass bet is put on the the pass line itself on a come out roll. Upon investigation by the police, it was discovered they were using a legal system of biased wheel-section betting. As a result of this, the British roulette wheel manufacturer John Huxley manufactured a roulette wheel to counteract the problem.

The new wheel, designed by George Melas, was called "low profile" because the pockets had been drastically reduced in depth, and various other design modifications caused the ball to descend in a gradual approach to the pocket area. Thomas Bass , in his book The Eudaemonic Pie published as The Newtonian Casino in Britain , has claimed to be able to predict wheel performance in real time.

The book describes the exploits of a group of University of California Santa Cruz students, who called themselves the Eudaemons , who in the late s used computers in their shoes to win at roulette. This is an updated and improved version of Edward O. Thorp 's approach, where Newtonian Laws of Motion are applied to track the roulette ball's deceleration; hence the British title.

In the early s, Gonzalo Garcia-Pelayo believed that casino roulette wheels were not perfectly random , and that by recording the results and analysing them with a computer, he could gain an edge on the house by predicting that certain numbers were more likely to occur next than the 1-in odds offered by the house suggested.

He did this at the Casino de Madrid in Madrid , Spain , winning , euros in a single day, and one million euros in total. Legal action against him by the casino was unsuccessful, being ruled that the casino should fix its wheel. The problem with this strategy is that, remembering that past results do not affect the future, it is possible for the player to lose so many times in a row, that the player, doubling and redoubling their bets, either runs out of money or hits the table limit.

A large financial loss is certain in the long term if the player continued to employ this strategy. Another strategy is the Fibonacci system, where bets are calculated according to the Fibonacci sequence. Regardless of the specific progression, no such strategy can statistically overcome the casino's advantage, since the expected value of each allowed bet is negative. Types of betting system[ edit ] Betting systems in roulette can be divided in to two main categories: Negative progression system e.

Martingale Negative progression systems involve increasing the size of one's bet when they lose. This is the most common type of betting system. The goal of this system is to recoup losses faster so that one can return to a winning position more quickly after a losing streak. The typical shape of these systems is small but consistent wins followed by occasional catastrophic losses. Positive progression system e. Paroli Positive progression systems involve increasing the size of one's bet when one wins.

The goal of these systems is to either exacerbate the effects of winning streaks e. Oscar's grind. The shape of these systems is typically small but consistent losses followed by occasional big wins. However, over the long run these wins do not compensate for the losses incurred in between. Instead of doubling a bet after a loss the gambler doubles the bet after every win. The system creates a false feeling of eliminating the risk of betting more when losing, but, in reality, it has the same problem as the martingale strategy.

By doubling bets after every win, one keeps betting everything they have won until they either stop playing, or lose it all. The Labouchere System involves using a series of numbers in a line to determine the bet amount, following a win or a loss. Typically, the player adds the numbers at the front and end of the line to determine the size of the next bet. If the player wins, they cross out numbers and continue working on the smaller line.

If the player loses, then they add their previous bet to the end of the line and continue to work on the longer line. This is a much more flexible progression betting system and there is much room for the player to design their initial line to their own playing preference.

This occurs because as the player loses, the average bet size in the line increases. As with all other betting systems, the average value of this system is negative. D'Alembert system[ edit ] The system, also called montant et demontant from French, meaning upwards and downwards , is often called a pyramid system.

It is based on a mathematical equilibrium theory devised by a French mathematician of the same name. Like the martingale, this system is mainly applied to the even-money outside bets, and is favored by players who want to keep the amount of their bets and losses to a minimum.

The betting progression is very simple: After each loss, one unit is added to the next bet, and after each win, one unit is deducted from the next bet. Starting with an initial bet of, say, 1 unit, a loss would raise the next bet to 2 units.

If you place a 4 or 10, the correct odds for those numbers are 2 to 1 against, because there are only three ways to roll them against six ways to throw a 7. The house payoffs, however, are made at only 9 to 5 ratio. The difference between the correct odds ratio and the payoff ratio gives the house the advantage of 6. If the payoff was 10 to 5 the correct odds , then the Place bets would be the even proposition bets. The correct odds for the Place bets on a 5 or 9 are 3 to 2, but the payoffs are only 7 to 5.

The correct odds for the Place bets on a 6 or 8 are 6 to 5, but the payoffs are made at 7 to 6. That difference gives the house the edge of 1. If you place a 6 or 8, your bets should be in multiples of 6 due to the payoff of 7 to 6. They can also be removed, reduced or increased at any time. Big 6 and Big 8 These two Craps bets are similar to the Place bets on a 6 and 8.

Big 6 and Big 8 bets can be made at any time including a come out roll. If you place a 6 or 8, your bets should be in multiples of 6 due to the payoff of 7 to 6. They can also be removed, reduced or increased at any time. Big 6 and Big 8 These two Craps bets are similar to the Place bets on a 6 and 8. Big 6 and Big 8 bets can be made at any time including a come out roll.

You can increase, reduce or remove Big 6 and Big 8 bets at any moment prior to a roll. Big 6 and Big 8 win if a 6 and 8 repeat before a 7 is rolled. If a 7 is tossed before the numbers come up, you lose the Big 6 and Big 8. The difference between them and the Place bets on a 6 and 8 is in the amount of the payoff. The correct odds for a 6 and 8 to beat a 7 is 6 to 5 against them.

The payoff for the winning Place bets is 7 to 6, but the payoff for the Big 6 and Big 8 in Las Vegas casinos is made at even money. In result, the house edge is raised to 9.

They can be made at any time. The dealer will place your chips in the designated area inside the box with the number 6. You lose if a 7 is tossed before a point comes up. If you place a 4 or 10, the correct odds for those numbers are 2 to 1 against, because there are only three ways to roll them against six ways to throw a 7. The house payoffs, however, are made at only 9 to 5 ratio. The difference between the correct odds ratio and the payoff ratio gives the house the advantage of 6.

If the payoff was 10 to 5 the correct odds , then the Place bets would be the even proposition bets. The correct odds for the Place bets on a 5 or 9 are 3 to 2, but the payoffs are only 7 to 5. The correct odds for the Place bets on a 6 or 8 are 6 to 5, but the payoffs are made at 7 to 6. That difference gives the house the edge of 1.

If you place a 6 or 8, your bets should be in multiples of 6 due to the payoff of 7 to 6. The dealer will place your chips in the designated area inside the box with the number 6. You lose if a 7 is tossed before a point comes up. If you place a 4 or 10, the correct odds for those numbers are 2 to 1 against, because there are only three ways to roll them against six ways to throw a 7.

The house payoffs, however, are made at only 9 to 5 ratio. The difference between the correct odds ratio and the payoff ratio gives the house the advantage of 6. If the payoff was 10 to 5 the correct odds , then the Place bets would be the even proposition bets. The correct odds for the Place bets on a 5 or 9 are 3 to 2, but the payoffs are only 7 to 5.

The correct odds for the Place bets on a 6 or 8 are 6 to 5, but the payoffs are made at 7 to 6. That difference gives the house the edge of 1. If you place a 6 or 8, your bets should be in multiples of 6 due to the payoff of 7 to 6. They can also be removed, reduced or increased at any time.

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