Then, copy that formula down for the rest of your stocks. But, as I said, dividends can make a huge contribution to the returns received for a particular stock. Also, you can insert charts and diagrams to understand the distribution of your investment portfolio, and what makes up your overall returns. If you have data on one sheet in Excel that you would like to copy to a different sheet, you can select, copy, and paste the data into a new location. A good place to start would be the Nasdaq Dividend History page. You should keep in mind that certain categories of bonds offer high returns similar to stocks, but these bonds, known as high-yield or junk bonds, also carry higher risk.
This poster describes skeletal observations and analysis of the burials excavated from Holtun. Individual osteobiographies are created for each due to variation in preservation, mortuary features, and chronology. Specifically, this research will examine patterns in age-at-death, sex, presence of pathology, and cultural modification, in conjunction with mortuary data to begin the exploration of social identity as reflected in burial remains.
Unique features, including dental modification, suggest some individuals exhibited elevated social status exemplified with burial in the site core. The results of this study contribute to research regarding the nuances of increasing social complexity at Holtun, and broadly contribute to our knowledge of ancient Maya life and the intersection of skeletal health and inferred social status. However, little is known about the overall temporal and geographic distribution of this temper type.
Toward this end, we analyze pottery throughout the southern Ohio Woodland period by assessing it with HCL for the presence or absence of limestone. The results of this examination have relevance for understanding the broader adoption of limestone temper. At approximately A. Previous excavations in the northern portion of the site revealed John Chapman people changing their ceramics to emulate Mississippian styles, while keeping their houses Late Woodland-like.
Recent magnetometry surveys targeted central and southern portions of the site that revealed high concentrations of materials during walk-over surveys with the goal of comparing potential habitation sites to the ones excavated in the north. This poster will display the subsurface anomalies picked up during the survey and discuss what this can inform us about landscape usage and communities.
Surface collections and excavations documented two Woodland communities and one mound. The Weaver community Late Woodland, ca. Aerial imagery seemed to indicate the presence of geometric earthworks. Magnetic survey in confirmed the circular-plaza layout of the Weaver village and discovered that the Havana community was apparently organized as a ca.
This may be the first complete plan of a Havana village as opposed to a hamlet to be documented. The survey also found no evidence of geometric earthworks but discovered six additional mounds. Interpretations of site activities have included a more intensive focus on pottery production and utilization at Parker Farm and greater emphasis on hunting and shell bead production at Carman.
Although differences in the reasons for the occupation of these sites have focused on seasonality, gender, and production, another possibility is that they may have been occupied by different groups moving into the area during the early contact period.
Variability in the material culture might indicate increased interaction and entanglement with their neighbors. This paper presents results from an analysis of pottery designed to elicit patterns of design, function, and technique with implications for discerning community identities and activities during this period of rapid change.
This analysis also sheds light on the processes of engagement with other groups and the environment in the early contact period. Situated at the confluence of long-distance trade routes and within an area of remarkable ecological diversity, the Galick Site constitutes a key setting for examining historical ecology at the southern end of Lake Champlain. These investigations have revealed the Galick Site to be a large, multicomponent campsite and settlement used extensively from the Late Paleoindian period up to the Historical era, with particularly heavy usage during the Middle-to-Late Woodland interval.
These investigations also provide initial confirmation for earlier suppositions that the Galick Site served as an important central place for a wide range of economic and social activities occurring within the South Lake Champlain area. Rim sherds recovered from archaeological sites in and around Jefferson County, NY are observed in an attempt to better understand the occupation by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians. Each of the observed sherds displays some form of decorative motif that can potentially inform researchers about when and where it came from.
In addition, I am also looking at carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and strontium isotopes from domestic dog remains as compared to white-tailed deer remains recovered from the same site to see whether domesticated dogs can be used as proxies for humans when considering movement patterns in a small area. The combination of these two datasets will strengthen any results from either individual data set and provide a more comprehensive interpretation of movement patterns in Jefferson County during the Late Woodland Period.
During this interval, around A. In many cases, these Weeden Island shell rings were substantially larger than their predecessors, however, some anomalously small, isolated Weeden Island rings have also been recorded, such as the Old Creek Shell Ring 8Wa90 in the St. Marks Wildlife Refuge.
Presented here are preliminary results from recent fieldwork at Old Creek, including analysis of ceramics and radiocarbon dates, intended to place this site within the larger sequence of cultural and settlement change on the Gulf Coast during the late Middle and Late Woodland periods.
These include biomorphic ceramic effigy vessels that depict or embody living things, or their characteristics. Using ethnohistorical and archaeological data, I suggest that the ceramics vessels in Palmetto Mound were considered to be animate, non-human persons with souls that were ritually killed, dismembered, and interred in the mound.
This poster explores the Mississippian history of the Middle Cumberland Region through GIS and investigates how visual data can best tell these stories. Salvage excavations between to have yielded one of the largest and best-preserved skeletal assemblages in the central Illinois River valley.
The human skeletal assemblage from the Orendorf site has been ideal for a wide variety of bioarchaeological research, both invasive and non-invasive. Despite the attention given to the individuals, research focusing on the burial contexts and radiometric dating of the burials are lacking.
Through georectification of spatial data from the original excavation paperwork, I have identified seven individual burials from distinct stratigraphic episodes within the burial mound excavated between and for radiocarbon dating. Establishing a chronology for the Orendorf mortuary complex allows for greater inter- and intrasite comparisons within the central Illinois River valley, as well as, a more nuanced understanding of previous bioarchaeological research conducted with the Orendorf skeletal collection within a temporal context.
Clair County, Illinois","North America: Midwest","Mississippian","Other","Materiality","The transition between early AD and late Mississippian AD in the American Bottom is recognized as a significant moment of socio-political and religious change in the historical trajectory of Cahokia. During this time, relationships between persons, places, and things transformed, resulting in different ways of engaging with both Cahokia and the non-human powers that underwrote it and the broader Mississippian world.
With a goal of investigating a Moorehead phase occupation in the uplands, the University of Illinois field school undertook excavations at the Rhea site, uncovering an important site with an unexpectedly complex transitional Mississippian occupation. Specialized architecture suggests a possible ""nodal"" site, though that which constitutes such a site clearly was changing.
Focusing on the material engagements evident at Rhea, preliminary results from ongoing investigations begin to address these changing relationships between Cahokia and its hinterland inhabitants during this pivotal time. Comparing Rhea to known regional patterns provides a basis for focusing on the practices, materials, and architectures that constitute extra-domestic, special-purpose sites after AD Aaron gmail.
Along the northeastern Mississippian periphery, shell tempered plain pots and body sherds are present but have not been formally considered. Through analysis and direct dating of early Fort Ancient c. AD ceramic assemblages, we suggest that Mississippi Plain pottery appears early at some sites along the Middle Ohio River.
Comparing these assemblages to contemporary Mississippian and Fort Ancient sites in the Ohio Valley points to a dichotomy in the early Fort Ancient system. Sites along the Ohio River appear to be more ""Mississippian"" in nature while sites south of the Ohio River appear to be more ""Woodland"" in nature. Using ceramic assemblage composition as one line of evidence in a multifaceted project investigating agricultural origins, it is becoming clear that the development of Fort Ancient societies was tied to the movement of Mississippians throughout the river valleys of the Midwest.
Today, Keys archaeological sites and historical properties are plagued by tourism-related development, a multi-faceted issue that is exacerbated by the compounding effects of weekly tidal erosion and seasonal tropical storms. Existing collections are therefore a crucial and fruitful resource in an area of such unfortunate circumstance. To be sure, they offer the best—and often the only—opportunity to study the diverse cultures that occupied this region in pre- and proto-historic times.
With this poster, I highlight the history of terrestrial archaeological investigation in the Florida Keys; present a summary of ongoing collections-based geochemical research; and most importantly, demonstrate how and why these small islands played a significant role in pan-regional maritime networks that extend from the 14th century into contemporary times.
Catherines Island, GA have recovered over pipe fragments and a dozen nearly complete pipes. These pipes are both historic and native made which cover a wide range of sites through occupational periods on the island. In this paper, I will present the results of recent and previous analyses and consolidate this information to explore the island-wide distribution and temporal trends of pipes on St.
Catherines Island. In addition I will examine several of the nearly-complete pipes and discuss the iconography and symbolism presented. Andrew","Wise","NA","saw12h my. Generally, these important cultural objects are classified by archaeologists as gaming pieces. This assumption is based on European descriptions of Native American games.
However, uncertainty remains regarding the function and significance of this class of artifact with no conclusive evidence that discoidals were used exclusively for games. Additionally, comparing ceramic discoidals with stone discoidals, chunkey stones, or similar artifacts is problematic. An analysis of artifacts from the Lamar site near Macon, Georgia uncovered a large number of ceramic discoidals. Excavated in the s, a study of discoidals from this collection provides information regarding their distribution and variety.
This research contributes to our understanding of daily life during the Lamar period as well as discoidals from Mississippian contexts. Furthermore, it is important to understand how these ceramic discoidals correspond with historic descriptions of Native American game pieces. By assessing the physical properties of discoidals from the Lamar site, this study sheds light on a neglected class of artifacts. Between A. In and , excavations at Singer-Moye were focused on investigating geophysical anomalies in an area adjunct to Mounds A and H at the site, in what has been interpreted as an elite or ceremonial precinct.
The most prolific design is the filfot cross, which is symmetrical and comprised of four basic elements. Although the overall filfot design does not change, the basic elements can differ to create unique combinations that can be used to track filfot variation and paddles. In this poster, I present the methods and results of a complicated- stamped pottery study, which tracked filfot cross design variations from several Late Mississippian sites on the Georgia coast.
These data expand our knowledge of Late Mississippian artwork, woodcarving technology, pottery practices, and coastal social interactions. Low-technology analysis techniques such as re-firing can provide a simple and cost-effective way to begin exploring these processes and test assumptions made by past archaeologists. Re-firing Fremont ceramics has provided new information about the choices made during the production process of the two main types of Fremont painted wares, Snake Valley Black-on-gray and Ivie Creek Black-on-white, some of which contradict previous assumptions.
This information includes clay sources, slip choices, and paint pigment composition. These data concerning the production process provide insights into the technological style of Fremont ceramics as well as the communities of practice that produced them.
In northwestern Colorado, storage features such as granaries are primarily found in three geographic locations: Dinosaur National Monument, Skull Creek Basin, and the Canyon Pintado Historic District, all of which are located within a 1,square mile area. These high desert areas represent distinct ecological zones on the Colorado Plateau, with granary architecture reflecting the local environmental and social landscapes.
This poster compares granary architectural data from several documented Formative era granaries to examine variability in construction style, material use, granary dimensions, and form between the three geographic clusters. Some researchers characterize the upland settlements as subservient and peripheral to the densely packed irrigation-based Hohokam communities along the Salt River. Others, instead, describe the upland populations as independent communities with rich histories of their own.
Still others speculate about the extent to which different parts of the region were connected. As a contribution to this debate, we have used electron microprobe assays of phyllite-tempered ceramics to trace the movement of pots across the uplands and thereby demarcate networks of interaction among neighboring settlements. Several pertinent results have emerged. First, two disconnected spheres of interaction divided the upland region. One sphere included close connections with the Hohokam to the south; the other did not.
One sphere engaged the populations on Perry Mesa to the north; the other did not. Second, Hohokam farmers probably imported seasonal agricultural labor from one part of the upland zone. Third, an integrated community along Cave Creek shared the same pottery until the area became an abandoned frontier, where unaffiliated farmsteads moved in without exchanging pottery with one another.
They also have implications for the diffusion of maize agriculture during this time period. Was the diffusion of maize agriculture through contact diffusion from Mesoamerica along a mountain corridor, was it contact diffusion from southern Arizona, or was there a migration of agricultural people from southern Arizona? Integral to the study of social interaction and the emergence of Chupadero Black-on-white ceramics is the nature of the pithouse-to-pueblo transition in each region.
Prior to the emergence of pueblo architecture, populations in Salinas lived in pithouses and used predominantly brownware ceramics. The gradual shift to above-ground architecture in the area coincided with a marked increase in the abundances of Chupadero Black-on-white. Similarly, while the shift out of pithouses occurred sporadically in the Jornada Mogollon world, those sites that eventually shifted to above-ground architecture frequently display higher quantities of Chupadero Black-on-white.
By creating ties between archaeological sites based on ceramics and architecture, Social Network Analysis produces networks of hypothesized interaction between sites in a large portion of the Mogollon culture area. Three questions direct the course of this research: 1 is there evidence of co-tradition between the Southern Sinagua and the Prescott Culture, as well as other cultural groups from north-central Arizona?
The variability of the burials uncovered at these sites are studied for insights on social structure and the role of children, symbolism, environmental influences on ritual, the presence of co-tradition, patterns in burial ritual, the influences of ideology, and the use of space. The burials recovered from the archaeological localities provide a limited sample revealing unique characteristics pertaining to the respective cultures and lead research to the grey literature and legacy data for an increased sample size.
Multispectral cameras take multiple images at nm nm, nm, nm, nm, nm, nm, nm, nm, nm, , and nm wavelengths with UV bandpass, visible bandpass, and long pass filters to increase the range of captured information to include UV reflectance and florescence emission images. This poster explores the ability to utilize this non-destructive technique to analyze variability of pigment recipes within ceramic types and between types.
Mineral and organic black pigments from five Black-on-white ceramic types Jemez, Cortex, Chuska, Red Mesa, and Abiquiu from the American Southwest were used for comparative purposes. Pigment and reflectance values acquired from images via Image J software were compared both within types and between types with one-way ANOVA analysis. Results show varying levels of significant statistical difference between types and minimal difference within types.
Discussions in the literature of the Mimbres region in New Mexico have stated that during the Classic period, the Mimbres ceramic tradition is confined to southwestern New Mexico, though this has not been tested with statistical assessments of data. Develop new 2 million ton per year Eastern underground mines, develop 30 new 2 million ton per year Eastern surface mines, develop new 5 million ton per year Western surface mines, recruit and train 80 thousand new Eastern coal miners and recruit and train 45 thousand new Western coal miners.
This plan of action is ambitious to say the least. Disregarding the long-term problems confronting the coal industry, the short-run obstacles alone are considerable. To open a new coal mine takes many years lead time; normally eighteen months are required to develop a new surface mine, and five to nine years are required to develop a new underground mine.
In contrast, only 13 mines with capacity greater than 2 million tons per year were brought into production during the decade of the 's. It is certainly feasible for the industry to open the new mines and produce the extraction equipment required. Assuming it can also solve the manpower requirements, the next step toward increased coal production is coal benefac- tion equipment and the facilities in which the coal is cleaned.
It will be necessary to design and construct as many coal preparation plants as new coal mines. The old philosophy that one need only extract the coal from the ground and allow the consumer primarily electric utilities to worry about the processing arid consumption of the coal is being altered rapidly.
With the current emphasis on coal utilization and with the mounting concerns over the waste disposal practices of the coal mining industry, it is imperative that individuals involved with the coal production industry, and specifically those involved with the monitoring of this industry, have a basic understanding of the processes and techniques of the physical cleaning of coal, the known potential pollutants, and the current practices for control of these pollutants.
Specifically, this manual covers the general characteristics of the coals found in the United States, provides an overview of the coal preparation plant, discusses the major equipment and processes currently utilized in the physical cleaning of coal, identifies the primary wastes produced during the coal cleaning operation, and discusses the techniques of control currently applied to those wastes.
The information contained will provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of the physical cleaning of coal, together with an understanding of the environmental issues and concerns which need to be addressed. The nature of coal, its origin, some of its basic properties and the objectives of physical coal cleaning are discussed in Chapters 2 and 3. A generalized discussion of the coal preparation operation, the coal cleaning plant, process modules and process flow sheets are provided in Chapter 4.
Chapters 5 through 10 address the major activities within the coal preparation plant as defined in Chapter 4. Chapter 11 reviews the coal preparation plant in total, providing insight into the quantities of coal, refuse and transporting media in each of the generalized areas discussed in Chapters 5 through Chapters 12 and 13 discuss the known waste streams emanating from the coal cleaning operation as they originate within the preparation plant and the current practice of minimizing and controlling those waste streams.
During the time most coal was formed, the air was very humid. Many of the plants were huge ferns and trees which died and were replaced time after time for thousands of years. The growing accumulations of the dead and dying material in a swamp or bog gradually became rotten soggy masses commonly referred to as peat.
During the Pennsylvanian Age, million years ago, the great peat swamps of North America extended over enormous areas along wide coastal plains. These swamps provided sufficiently wet conditions to permit exclusion of air from much of the vegetable materials before decay could begin and the rapid accumulation of the materials thwarted bacterial action. In addition, acidity of swamp water normally prevented bacterial action at a few inches or a few feet below the water level.
As the peat accumulated, the weight of the top layers compacted the lower layers by squeezing out large amounts of water. After a while, large areas of the earth's surface sank and streams and oceans invaded the swamps carrying salt water, clay mud and sand. The salt water killed the remaining plants and the peat accumulations were buried beneath tons of clay and sand.
The burial of the peat by the sediment accompanied by the physical and chemical effects associated with the changed environment and by the loss of water and volatile matter resulted in a change of color and appearance of the peat; the peat became lignite, which is the lowest ranked coal. Successive invasions of the sea and the piling of layer upon layer of sedimentary material resulted in the deep burial of the lignite deposits.
Deep burial resulted in a rise in temperature, and the additional pressure squeezed out more of the retained swamp gases and moisture. These activities contributed to the process of "coalification" or the completion of the metamorphosis of 'the plant debris and the formation of bituminous coal. In some geographic areas and under special circumstances, still another step occurred in the coalification process. The layers of coal, together with the underlying and overlying strata, were subjected to awesome compressive forces as the great plates of the earth's crust moved and pushed against each other forming mountainous folds.
This wrinkling of the crust produced high temperatures, and the coal, thus heated and compressed, changed again; this time the resulting product is called anthracite. Many geological factors influence thickness, continuity, quality and mining conditions of coal. Some geological features occurred during peat accumulation or shortly thereafter, others occurred millions of years later.
Several of the more common features that affect coal cleaning are described below. In general, the closer the peat beds were to the flooding stream, the thicker the deposits left and the more total was the disruption to the bed. This activity is called a washout. Washouts may occur shortly after deposition of the peat or after coalification is complete. The movement may be measured from inches to miles and in any direction from horizontal to vertical.
Two of the most common types of faults observed are illustrated below. Where horizontal compressive forces are responsible for fault- ing, one block may be shoved over the other producing a "thrust" or "reverse fault". These clay veins may be from a fraction of an inch to several feet thick and may extend for some distance into the strata overlying the coal.
They frequently contribute to roof instability as the coal is mined. The clay veins tend to be numerous in some areas and commonly intersect each other. They add to the waste material that must be removed from the salable coal as well as creating safety hazards and drainage problems. They may be microscopic or several feet across, although the most commonly observed size is several inches wide.
The presence of large concre- tions in mine roof material may have a considerable effect upon roof stability creating safety hazards and adding to the waste material. In the coal headed for a preparation plant, pyritic concretions are common, ranging from less than an inch to several feet and are usually referred to as sulfur balls.
The igneous rock is commonly seen as a dike which is a nearly vertical tabular mass cutting across the bedding of the sediments. Depending on the size of the igneous mass and its temperature, the coal is thermally affected, being either advanced in rank or coked immediately adjacent to the igneous body, The igneous rocks that occur within a coal seam are much harder than the coal which may cause mining problems and contribute to preparation problems. A thin zone adjacent to the igneous rock has been thermally altered to natural coke.
Coal increasingly metamorphoses responds to pressure and heat from lignite and subbituminous ranks through the high-volatile, medium- volatile, low-volatile bituminous coal ranks to anthracite and meta-anthracite. Coalification is a gradual process and the classification of coal by ranks is just an identification of the various stages of that process and is based upon such properties as the percentage of fixed carbon, the percentage of volatile matter, calorific value and the agglomerating character as shown in Table 2.
However, the classification by ranks does little to describe the overall complexities of the chemical and physical composition of different coals. Coal is a very complex material and its chemical composition varies widely. The principle differences between coals can be traced to the different plant assemblages in the original forest, and to the history of the coal bed since it was formed.
The original peat bogs and coastal swamps were occasionally subjected to flooding by streams from adjacent hills. As this happened additional clay and silt were deposited in the swamp. These additional deposits became mixed with the plant debris and are responsible for the ash content of the coal: The muddier the original bog, the greater the ash content of the coal. As the peat became buried, other changes occurred. The deeper it was buried, the greater the compression and heat experienced by the bed.
The greater the compression and heat, the more the volatile constituents were removed: The more volatiles removed, the greater the carbon content of the coal. Anthracitie II. Bituminous III. Subbituminous IV. Lignitic 1. This recognition ic accomplished on the basis of identification of unique characteristics. The characteristics which permit the distinction between two specimens of coal are called properties. The physical properties are concerned with the characteristics of coal in its natural state, or prior to its end use as a fuel.
For example, the hardness of coal determines the maintenance cost on coal handling equipment; the specific gravity of coal determines the coal preparation techniques used in a cleaning plant as well as the capacity of coal bins, boats and size of cargo and other coal storage facilities. The physical properties are, of course, dependent upon the chemical constituents that make up coal. The chief physical properties important to coal preparation are: Specific Gravity Size Stability and Uniformity Friability Resistance to Weathering Grindability Presence of Impurities The chemical constituents that are important to coal preparation relate primarily to the impurities in the coal, i.
Various values ranging from 1. The variations are due to differences in rank, differences in moisture and ash content and differences in methods used to determine specific gravity. The specific gravity of clean coal increases with rank and ranges from lignite to anthracite. Coal of a given rank has a higher apparent specific gravity when wet than when dry, and similarly, a change in specific gravity is exhibited with the change in ash content: Higher ash content gives higher specific gravity.
The most important use of this physical characteristic is the part that it plays in the cleaning of coal by wet cleaning methods. The basic principle on which these operate is that the specific gravity of coals differs from their associated impurities and that there is a relationship between the velocity with which the particles fall in water and their relative densities.
Shale, clay and sandstone, if pure, have a specific gravity of about 2. Carbonaceous shale ranges in specific gravity from 2. Other impurities such as gypsum, kaolin and calsite have specific gravities of 2. Since the specific gravities of all these impurities are considerably greater than the specific gravity of coal, these impurities will fall to the bottom of a container filled with water more rapidly than coal.
If the water is given a pulsating motion by compressed air, for example, causing the water to move up and down, the impurities will be kept at the bottom and the coal at the top where it can be recovered. The tendency towards breakage during handling, termed "friability", depends to some extent on the toughness, elasticity and fracture characteristics as well as upon strength. The greater the friability of a given coal, the greater the chance for size degradation, e. Friability normally increases with coal rank with the exception of anthracites reaching a maximum in coals of the low-volatile group.
Coals of somewhat lower rank than low-volatile are usually relatively non-friable and, hence, resist degradation in size with its accompanying increase in the amount of surface exposed to oxidation. With coals of subbituminous rank, degradation by slacking or weathering supplements that due to breakage or handling. Anthracites are compared in friability to the subbituminous coals; both are harder than bituminous coals and decidedly more resistant to breakage than the very friable low-volatile coals.
Lignites were found to be the least friable of all coals. Lower ranked coals like lignite slack very readily; subbituminous coals slack to some extent but less readily than lignite; and bituminous coals are affected only slightly by weathering. The size degradation caused by slacking is expressed as a precentage and termed slack 19 index. Slack indexes of five percent or less characterize bituminous coals where as the slack indexes for lignite approach percent.
A general relationship exists between the grindability of a specific coal and its rank. Coals that are the easiest to grind are found in the medium- volatile and low-volatile groups. These coals are decidedly easier to grind than coal of the high-volatile bituminous, subbituminous and anthracite ranks. The most common index of grindability is the Hardgrove grindability index.
V Black Creek Castle Gate Various llurdgrovc Irindahilily Imlfx 92 55 65 86 9ft 58 70 43 62 84 98 55 57 63 56 42 40 55 51 50 55 44 47 38 20 United States coals. The capacity, power input for pulverizing and repair costs of pulverizers vary with the grindability index. The higher the index the easier the coal is to grind. The diversity of the original plant materials and the degree of metamorphism or coalification that have affected these materials are the two major reasons for the variety of physical components in coal.
This widely varying composition greatly affects the preparation characteristics of the coal. Bed moisture may range from a low of 1, 2 or 3 percent in bituminous coal to a high of 45 percent in lignite. The actual moisture content of a given coal as it enters a preparation plant or a steam generator is dependent upon a number of factors in addition to its bed moisture.
The mining methods used to extract the coal, the storage techniques of both the raw and the clean coal products, the method of cleaning and drying of the coal and the method of transporting the coal to user may all affect the moisture content of a coal. The moisture in the coal, whether inherent or surface, can be considered as an impurity from the viewpoint of utilization. Not only does moisture 21 replace potential energy in proportion to the amount present, but it further robs Btu output because the moisture must be heated to stack temperatures in the boiler furnace before it is expelled.
The relative rate at which the mineral and the organic materials accumulated in the swamp determines the physical character and ash content of the product that resulted. If organic matter predominated, the product formed was coal containing some inherited impurities.
If silt predominated, a carbonaceous shale was formed. Products intermittent between these two are classified as bone or boney coal depending upon the amount of silt incorporated in their structure. Coal ash varies greatly in its chemical composition. Table shows the important minor and trace elements found in most coals.
Much more detailed listings may be found in the referenced literature. The residue from these minerals after the coal has been burned is called ash. Coal material that is too high in ash for ordinary use may be called bone coal, bituminous shale or black slate.
Some ash-forming impurities are so finely divided and so intimately mixed with pure coal substances that they may be considered a structural part of the coal. Impurities of this type cannot be separated from the coal by physical preparation. The chief value of determining them quantita- tively is that they fix a minimum ash content of the cleanest portion of the raw coal--the so-called true, fixed, normal or inherent ash content. In the washing processes for eliminating impurities, the value of inherent ash may be approached as a limiting minimum to designate the portion of the ash content of coal that is structurally part of the coal itself and, therefore, cannot be separated by mechanical means.
Other impurities are interbedded with coal and may be in thin layers or in thick rock-like deposits. Clay is the most common substance in banded impurities consisting mainly of one or more of the three common clay minerals-- kaolinite, illite and montmorillinite. Clay presents major problems to the coal preparation plant. The majority of these wet process techniques use the difference in density between coal and its associated impurities as the basis for separating the coal from the impurities.
The pronounced tendency of clays to disintegrate in water and to form plastic masses have definite implications 24 in terms of the design and operation of preparation plants, i. The direct operational difficulties cost associated with the particle disintegration and the resulting dispersion of colloidal matter appear in the form: of contamination to and increased viscosity of dense-medium suspensions, difficulties in dewatering and drying of the fine coal sizes, difficulties in the filtration of froth-flotation products and handling difficulties in the disposal of fine refuse.
In addition to the items listed above and with specific reference to the low-ranked lignite and subbituminous coals, other operational difficulties arise when the lattice structure of the particular clays associated with these coals render them susceptible to swelling. These clays may swell to such a degree that their apparent specific gravity is altered significantly. This alteration brings the specific gravity of the clay down to 1. As the specific gravity of the clays approaches that of the coal being washed, several things may happen.
First, the clay becomes extremely difficult to separate from the coal. Secondly, the apparent density of the wash-bath is altered significantly allowing slate to be discharged with the coal at the top of the washer. Specifics of the washing operation are addressed in Chapter 7.
The problems generated by clay and shales in a washing plant appear to be related to the rank of the coal. In anthracite coal, the shale is so well indurated and 25 compacted that it is called slate and it shows very little tendency toward particle disintegration.
On the other hand, clay and shale in low-rank coals, such as subbituminous,. Many U. The reduction of sulfur in coal is a difficult problem which has long been under study. Sulfur in coal is reported in detailed chemical analysis as s. The sulfur content of coals varies from 0. Sulfate sulfur, or that part of the total sulfur that can be extracted by treatment with hydrochloric acid, is usually of only minor importance less than 0.
The sulfate sulfur occurs in combination with either calcium or iron and is usually water-soluble, originating from in situ pyrite oxidation. The amount of sulfate sulfur in a coal increases rapidly with weathering as the oxidation of iron sulfides gives rise to ferrous and ferric sulfates. The term pyritic sulfide sulfur is used to refer to either of the two dimorphous forms of ferrous disulfide FeS2 --pyrite or marcasite.
The two minerals have the same chemical composition, but have different crystalline forms. Pyrite is isometric cubic and marcasite is orthorhombic. The Victorian brown coals of Australia are an exception in that marcasite is virtually the only sulfide material reported.
Sulfide sulfur occurs as individual particles 0. Pyrite is a dense mineral 4. The organic sulfur is a part of, and chemically bonded to, the coal; it cannot be removed unless the chemical bonds holding it are broken.
The amount of organic sulfur present, therefore, defines the theoretical lowest limit at which a coal can be cleaned by physical methods. Where organic sulfur is associated with certain constituents of coal, gravimetric reductions may be possible; however, organic sulfur is generally considered to be uniformly distributed throughout the coal and not amenable to reductions by conventional mechanical cleaning.
Very small and highly disseminated pyrite particles are nearly impossible to separate from coal. The pyrite may be of microscopic size and so intimately mixed with the coal that it cannot be liberated, or it may be predominantly coarse and readily released from the coal when crushed. For a given situation, the removable sulfur is the total sulfur less the sum of the organic sulfur and that portion of the finely disseminated pyrite which cannot be removed.
Due to the many different methods used to estimate coal reserves, and because available information on coal varies widely, comparisons of the reserves between or among countries is very difficult. Approximately one-eighth of the land area of the United States is underlain by coal- bearing strata.
These strata occur in at least 37 states. Figure depicts the coal fields of the United States. Geological Survey In addition to indicating the geographic distribution of coal, Figure shows the range of coal ranks within the United States. Nearly all the bituminous and anthracite coal is found in the Eastern half of the country. Although the full range of coal ranks is found in the Western half of the United States, most Western coal reserves are sub-bituminous coal or lignite.
In most of the coal-bearing areas shown in Figure , more than one coal seam is present from a few seams to that have been identified in West Virginia. The individual seams range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to more than feet. Most of the bituminous coal seams are 20 feet thick thick or less and most mining has been in seams from 3 to 10 feet thick.
However, based on current technology, economics and environmental regulations, only some billion tons could reasonably be extracted". There are three main classes of reserves. They are: measured, indicated and inferred.
They may be described as follows: 1. Inferred reserves, in general, lie more than 2 miles from points of observation. Sometimes this category is broken into strongly inferred reserves, which are estimated by projections beyond the 4 mile limit. The Bureau of Mines frequently reports known reserves that represent the sum of measured and indicated reserves.
Beds or parts of beds made up of alternating layers of thin coal and partings are omitted if the total partings exceed one half the total thickness or if the ash content exceeds 33 percent. Frequently, the distribution of reserves is also categorized according to thickness of overburden: 0 to 1, feet, 1, to 3, feet and 3, feet to 6, feet.
The breakdown of total U. The coal fields of the United States, identified by regions and type of mining, are shown in Figure 2. The Appalachian Region, which stretches northeastward from Alabama through Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania, is the largest deposit of high-rank bituminous coal in the world, and contains most of the anthracite coal in the United States.
One of the characteristics of the Appalachian Region coals which enhances their value is their ability to form coke or agglomerate when heated in the absence of, or with a limited supply of air. All of the coals are not used for coke-making, however, because some contain more sulfur than is desirable for metallurgical-grade coke.
We have more information on the quality of these coals than for those found in any other region in the country. Kentucky 2. West Virginia 3. Virginia 4. Tennessee 2. Indiana 3. Iowa 4. Ohio Ragk»3 1. Pennsylvania 1. Colorado 2. Montana 3. NawMexico 4. Wyoming Regions 1. Oklahoma 2. Kansas 3. Missouri 1. Pennsylvania Reg»fi2 1.
Mercer County. McDowell County. Wyoming County. Illinois 2. Indiana 3 Ohio Region 4 1. Tennessee 3. Virginia Regions 1. Utah 2. Colorado Region 6 I. West Virginia ranks second to Illinois in total bituminous coal reserves, but first in reserves of bituminous coal among the states in the Appalachian Region. Approximately 46 percent of West Virginia's reserves are low-sulfur coals here defined as 1. West Virginia coals vary so greatly that it is convenient to separate them as northern and southern coals.
In the North, the Pittsburgh bed produces medium-sulfur coals, and the upper Freeport and Sewell beds produce low- sulfur coals that are excellent for steam generation. In the South, the Lower Kittanning, No. As the sulfur content of these coals is generally low, only the ash content needs to be reduced.
In Pennsylvania, large quantities of bituminous coal are produced for electric utilities. These are generally medium-sulfur coals 85 percent of the reserve contains 3 percent or less sulfur and 35 percent has a sulfur content of no more than 2 percent.
The Central Pennsylvania beds, including both medium and low-volatile coals, generally contain less sulfur than those in the western part of the state and are upgraded primarily to reduce the ash content before they are used for steam generation. They are used primarily for steam generation. Maryland's coals are similar to those of the eastern portion of the bituminous fields of Pennsylvania, but these usually have low-sulfur content. In eastern Kentucky and Virginia, the coals are of low-sulfur content.
In Tennessee and Alabama, the sulfur content of the coal ranges from low to high. Of the bituminous deposits, about two-thirds are located in the states east of the Mississippi River. The coal fields or deposits in Illinois, Indiana and western Kentucky contain 29 percent of the estimated remaining bituminous coal reserve, but Illinois alone has the largest bituminous reserve of all states. Coals in these states are generally higher in sulfur, especially organic sulfur, with almost 80 percent of the reserved containing more than 3 percent sulfur.
There are, however, several small deposits of low-sulfur coals in southern Illinois and Indiana where sulfur content averages 1. The Interior Western region contains large deposits of medium to high-volatile bituminous, which have not been extensively mined because they are too far from the eastern centers of population and industry.
A smaller area of low-volatile bituminous and anthracite extends over into Arkansas. The small lignite beds in Texas and Arkansas extend over into Alabama and are properly in the Gulf Province. They have been included with the interior western region in the USBM studies for convenience.
Coals in the Northern Great Plains province comprise enormous deposits of lignite and subbituminous, which have scarcely been touched. Lignite is characterized by a high content of water and ash, and an ash content of alkaline earths which is significantly higher than other coals. The western region is defined here, as in the USBM studies of coals by regions, to include the deposits in the Rocky Mountain states and a few isolated deposits in the Pacific Northwest.
A southwest sub-region at the Four- Corners area of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Colorado has been established for washability data collection. Although the lower rank western coals are generally of low-sulfur content and often contain only medium amounts of ash, they also are of lower calorific value and are mostly used for steam generation where they can be mined easily and utilized close to their source.
However, in some recent applications, these coals are being shipped to eastern steam generators. On a broad regional level, only the bituminous coals of South Appalachia and some of the lignites of the West will directly, or with the best coal cleaning technology, meet the most strict sulfur emission levels, although there are other seams with substantial reserves which can comply.
The coals of North Appalachia, as a group, can be prepared to meet some regional state implementation plans. Government Printing Office, U. During the past decade increasing emphasis has been placed on removing the impurities, especially those which result in sulfur oxide emissions upon combustion of the coal.
Historically, in the United States coal preparation has been utilized only for specific coals destined for carbonization. The reasons are varied; primarily to reduce their sulfur content, to provide a specific uniform product, to enhance salability, and to improve the economic advan- tages for coal marketing by developing a superior product.
The technological and economic growth of the last 25 years, the resulting degradation of our Nation's environment and the introduction of emission standards for air pollution control sulfur oxides have changed this picture considerably in recent years.
Years ago, in the hand-loading days of our coal industry, the quality of coal produced was generally satisfactory regardless of use because only the cleanest seams were mined and the majority of impurities inherent in mining operations were not loaded out with the coal. However, productivity per man was very low. Mechanization improved productivity, but impurities increased to the 41 extent that some form of cleaning became necessary at many mines, even those in the cleanest seams.
The transformation from hand-loading to mechanical mining was quite rapid during the mid 's. Tipples and earlier type cleaning devices became inadequate almost overnight. The quality of coal was jeopardized again with the adoption of full- seam mining throughout the industry. Cleaning units were installed on coarse coal sizes to eliminate the manpower required for hand picking the coal as it came from the mine.
In addition, due to the marked increase in finer sizes in the run-of-the-mine coal called "ROM", cleaning units were installed to pick up the slack in the coal output. Today with the thinner dirtier seams being mined, the impurities in the raw coal may be not only from the seam itself, but also in extraneous material taken in mining of the roof or floor. With increased mechanization, a higher proportion of top and bottom material is taken in mining, which increases the tonnage of reject to be handled.
Also, the effects on mining practice of the coal mine Health and Safety Act of have contributed significantly to the increase in impurities in the ROM coal. For example, the water sprays on continuous miners used to ally the dust at the face seem to add significantly to the moisture content of the raw coal while excessive rock dusting adds other incombustibles to the ROM coal. Demand for electrical energy, the shortage of available oil and gas and stagnation of nuclear power development, have made critical the issue as to whether energy can be made available, in its desired forms, to meet future demands without sacrificing the environment.
Some of the reasons for coal preparation are: removal of substantial quantities of sulfur from coal, concentration of carbon in the clean coal, removal of ash, reduction in concentration of trace elements and uniform quality of product including ash, moisture and Btu content.
Coals have highly variable characteristics by seam and by geographical location. Coals are prepared by size reduction and sorting, based upon particle size and density, to create uniform products of high calorific content and reduced mineral levels; especially sulfur. However, only the pyritic sulfur fraction of the total sulfur content is amenable to separation by physical processing. This limitation of sulfur reduction to the natural organic sulfur level of a particular coal means that the level of coal quality improvements attainable is varying, being constrained by processing objectives, cost, processing technology and coal characteristics.
The specific ways of preparing coal are of course determined by its end use. Although many of the same methods are used in evaluating coals for different uses, the 43 problems, bodies of knowledge and approaches associated with carbonization and combustion in each area are sufficiently dissimilar that coal evaluation in each area merits separate discussion. Coke is the hard, condensed residue resulting from the slow combustion of bituminous coal in the absence of air.
This process distills and drives off the volatiles and leaves a high-carbon product, i. During decomposition, the coal mass fuses and swells and becomes plastic. Gradually the mass solidifies as the process reaches completion. The by-product coke oven, as shown in Figure , is the primary tool for processing coke in the United States.
The oven is externally heated and allows for the recovery of the coal gases, coal tar, and other valuable by-products. Not all coals are suitable for coking purposes and those that are selected must be carefully prepared before carbonization to produce a high quality coke. The main purpose in cleaning coals is to reduce moisture, ash and sulfur content; however, coal is also prepared to obtain a uniform product.
This is important because coal often varies in quality in different areas of a mine. By prepar- ing the coal, a blending of the various qualities can be achieved to assure a uniform coke with minimum ash and sulfur content. For example, in high or vertical furnace processes a lowering of the sulfur content in coke by 1 percent saves from 18 to 20 percent of the fuel, considerably increasing the efficiency of the metallurgical aggregates and contributing to an improvement in the quality of the metal, Also, sulfur in coal used for metallurgy is apt to contaminate the metal.
This holds equally true for several other elements which comprise the ash content of coal such as phosphorous and arsenic. Many of these plants use high-sulfur coal although increasingly more stringent Federal, State and local air pollution regulations 45 have intensified the demand for clean fuels and superior control devices. The major problem of coal-burning power plants is reducing the air pollutants in stack gases.
In most of these plants, a chief pollutant is sulfur dioxide from the combustion of organic sulfur compounds present in the coal. Stack gas cleaning systems are expensive to install and operate, and in some cases would not be needed if most of the pollutants were removed from the coal prior to combustion. The sulfur dioxide standards now applicable to the power industry include Federal regulations which primarily relate to new facilities and those imposed by the individual State Implementation Plans SIP's.
These regulations apply to steam generating facilities which were started or modified after August 17, , within days of the time they came on-line. Besides the maximum 2 hour average value of 1. Estimates made in accordance with Project Independence the President's plan for the United States to be energy self-sufficient by call for the demand of coal to expand to between 1.
About 94 billion tons of naturally occurring low sulfur coal can be foreseen as a supply that meets air quality regulations. The remaining portion will have to be regulated by using control devices or by coal preparation. Of these methods, physical removal of pyritic sulfur is the least expensive and the most highly developed method. The degree of sulfur reduction possible depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal and its amenability to sulfur release upon crushing.
These characteristics are unique to specific coals and vary from coal to coal. Until such time as new coal conversion technology becomes available and economical, most sulfur oxide emission control will be affected by physical coal cleaning, flue gas scrubbing or a combination of both. Additionally, the use of coal in coal fired plants with high ash content results in a greater loss of efficiency, yields a greater amount of ash and leads to greater losses in the flue gases.
Also, the loss of sensible heat and combustible matter in the ash is. With the exception of coal used by some stokers or wet bottom furnaces, coal used in utility power plants is normally pulverized. The cost of grinding and the wear and tear of the pulverizers are disproportionately increased if the coal has a high ash content because the shale is harder to grind than the coal.
Furthermore, the mineral matter in the dust entering the combustion chamber must be heated to the flame temperature without contributing anything to the 47 heating and the incombustible dust must be discharged from the furnace. The flue gases generally carry large quantities of incombustible dust which is either discharged through the stack or accumulates on the stack walls. Other than poor design or operation, the quality of the coal greatly effects the efficiency of the combustor.
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|Rute pantai muara betting bekasi barat||With increased mechanization, a higher proportion of top and bottom material is taken in mining, which increases the tonnage of reject to be handled. After separation, the products are directed to module four - product dewatering. Second, Hohokam farmers probably imported seasonal agricultural labor from one part of the upland zone. Chapters 5 through 10 address the major activities within the coal preparation plant as defined in Chapter 4. The principle differences between coals can be traced to the different plant assemblages in the original forest, and to the history of the coal bed since it was formed.|
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