Then, copy that formula down for the rest of your stocks. But, as I said, dividends can make a huge contribution to the returns received for a particular stock. Also, you can insert charts and diagrams to understand the distribution of your investment portfolio, and what makes up your overall returns. If you have data on one sheet in Excel that you would like to copy to a different sheet, you can select, copy, and paste the data into a new location. A good place to start would be the Nasdaq Dividend History page. You should keep in mind that certain categories of bonds offer high returns similar to stocks, but these bonds, known as high-yield or junk bonds, also carry higher risk.
This week a different study on the climate impacts of bitcoin found the proportion of fossil generation used to power proof of work was far higher than that claimed by advocates. This shows the geographical distribution of bitcoin miners.
Combining that data with previous studies on regional differences in electricity generation, the researchers were able to estimate the proportion of generation which is renewable. Sign up to Business Today Free daily newsletter Get set for the working day — we'll point you to the all the business news and analysis you need every morning Privacy Notice: Newsletters may contain info about charities, online ads, and content funded by outside parties.
For context, BTC is a cryptocurrency with a decentralized open-source blockchain whose public ledger began in 25 and is transacted peer-to-peer without any central authority e. Miners who are first to verify a given number of transactions and to provide the correct hash identifier are rewarded with new cryptocurrency and a new block is added to the chain As miners across the globe compete, as quickly as possible, to add new blocks to the chain i.
As miners compete with ever more computing power e. On the basis of these estimates, in BTC mining used There is a general upward time trend in BTC electricity use and a close correlation between BTC prices and mining energy usage. Data from January 1, to December 31, shown. Prices downloaded from Yahoo! All network hash rate and price data are supplied in the Supplementary Data.
Full size image Estimates from Cambridge University suggest the majority of electricity used to mine POW cryptocurrencies comes from coal and natural gas, though hydropower use was likely prominent in China until cryptocurrency mining was banned there 32 , Due to its considerable fossil fuel energy use, cryptocurrency mining contributes to global carbon emissions 30 , 34 with associated environmental damages Goodkind et al.
For comparison, in , similar amounts of CO2 were emitted from Afghanistan 7. Climate damages associated with bitcoin mining As mining efforts have increased over time, we estimate steeply increasing CO2e carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per coin created. Using a global estimate of the location of BTC miners and the local electricity mix, and regional CO2e emission coefficients by generation type 37 , a BTC mined in is responsible for emitting times the CO2e as a BTC mined in —increasing from 0.
A non-linear trend line has been fit to the damages per coin data to illustrate time trends dotted line. Values displayed are the 7-days running average. Climate damages per coin mined in A were divided by the daily market price of the coin and multiplied by to put into percentage terms for calculation in B.
Estimates span January 1, to December 31, See the Supplementary Data for emissions factors used and the climate damages data. This percentage is useful to normalize the scale of externalities to the market price of the product. We offer two potential ranges of concern in Fig. The former would be above those found on average in Goodkind et al. For more than one-third of the days in , BTC climate damages exceeded the price of the coins sold.
There is a clear upward trajectory in per coin estimated climate damages, as seen from the non-linear trend line in Fig. Rather than declining as the industry matures, each new BTC coin mined is, on average, associated with increasing climate damages. Over —, BTC was underwater on 6. What if the social cost of carbon is varied? One key parameter where we assume a range of values from available evidence is the SCC. SCC is the estimated present value of monetary damages from emitting an additional tonne of carbon today and monetizes the negative social externalities of carbon emissions From a policy and regulatory perspective, SCC is a key parameter for evaluating the social costs i.
SCC estimation has extensive history in economics 40 , 41 , 42 , and such values are widely used However, while analyses that use SCC estimates must make assumptions on its value or range, there is no consensus Even a select review of recent SCC estimation studies encompasses a broad range of values 38 , 40 , Regardless of SCC value, climate damages of BTC mining increased substantially from to , with a continuing upward trajectory.
What if mining used more renewable energy? The CO2e emission estimates and climate damages depend, critically, on assumptions of the share of renewable electricity sources used in cryptocurrency mining. Due to the decentralized and anonymized nature of cryptocurrency mining, determining actual energy sources is a challenge and no primary data sources exist This has led to a range of estimates in the literature.
Prior work suggests the share of renewables e. Some of the differences in estimates are due to the time periods studied. China, once a large source of global Bitcoin mining that likely used significant amounts of renewable hydropower 30 , banned all cryptocurrency mining in This appears to have drastically altered the global share of renewables used by Bitcoin miners, resulting in an increased use of fossil fuels Thus, renewable share estimates before and after the China ban would be expected to be different, and perhaps considerably so.
Other differences, such as the methods used to locate miners, assumptions on mining rig efficiency and cooling needs, and assumptions on electricity sources can also drive differences in the range of estimates found in prior work 30 , Given the large ranges found, we expand our analysis with an alternative higher renewable electricity scenario.
In this scenario, we increase the share of renewable generation used to mine cryptocurrencies from the baseline of Compared to the baseline renewable share, increasing use of renewables in BTC mining reduces associated climate damages per coin mined Supplementary Table 2.
Thus, even if BTC miners obtained the majority of their electricity from renewables and directly carbon free sources, there are still large and growing climate damages. Comparison to other commodities Recall from Fig. This does not necessarily imply that the POW mining process is sustainable. To contextualize these ratios, we make climate damage comparisons against some other relevant commodities and economic products: i electricity generation by source hydropower, wind, solar, nuclear, natural gas, and coal , ii crude oil processed and burned as gasoline, iii automobile use and manufacturing sport utility vehicles SUVs and mid-sized sedans , iv agricultural meat production chicken, pork, and beef , and; v precious metals mining rare earth oxides REOs , copper, platinum group metals PGMs , and gold.
BTC climate damages only include energy use and emissions from running mining rigs, and do not include climate damages associated with cooling and manufacturing of mining rigs or other potential sources of carbon equivalent emissions. This makes estimated BTC damages a lower bound compared to the full lifecycle damages for the other commodities shown.
Climate damages for the other commodities and economic products shown are calculated using lifecycle estimates from the peer-reviewed literature and US government agencies combined with publicly available price data. All commodity prices and lifecycle climate damage data are in the Supplementary Data. This places BTC in the category of other energy intensive or heavily-polluting commodities such as beef production, natural gas electricity generation, or gasoline from crude oil, and substantially more damaging than what we might consider to be more sustainable commodities like chicken and pork production and renewable electricity sources like solar and wind.
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