Then, copy that formula down for the rest of your stocks. But, as I said, dividends can make a huge contribution to the returns received for a particular stock. Also, you can insert charts and diagrams to understand the distribution of your investment portfolio, and what makes up your overall returns. If you have data on one sheet in Excel that you would like to copy to a different sheet, you can select, copy, and paste the data into a new location. A good place to start would be the Nasdaq Dividend History page. You should keep in mind that certain categories of bonds offer high returns similar to stocks, but these bonds, known as high-yield or junk bonds, also carry higher risk.
The first purpose-built football stadium in Spain was the San Mames which was built in Bilbao in and the region thus became the cradle of the Spanish game. Bilbao were first managed by an Englishman named Mr Shepherd but the club immediately issued a ruling which stipulated that only players of Basque descent could play for the club.
However, the English and the game were held in high regard and the club looked to the Britons when it came to hiring their managers. Barnes won two Copa del Rey titles with Athletic Bilbao, then went back to Britain to sign up for service during WWI and then returned to the club in August , only to find the Spaniards instilling their own version of the game at the club.
When I first came, it was a patient slow game of short passing — elegant to watch but totally unpractical, Scots style. I introduced at Athletic a fast game with long passing, taking the ball from wing to wing, and fast players in the centre capable of scoring goals.
Today I find most clubs have a tendency to play this way whereas Athletic seems to have lost its way. After beating Denmark in their first game, Spain would go on to lose to Belgium in the quarter finals but would enter a repechage system for the silver medal. Subsequently, Spain then went on to beat Sweden , Italy and in the final playoff for silver, beat the Netherlands with Felix Sesumaga scoring twice.
In the game against Sweden, Spain were trailing at half time but six minutes into the second half equalised through Jose Maria Belauste. Spain seemed to rally behind a call to battle and launched an attack of such ferocity that within two minutes it had secured a free-kick just outside the penalty area. Belauste launched himself at a chipped cross and took a number of Swedes with him as he bundled the ball into the net.
His name was Fred Pentland. Pentland went on to coach Racing Santander and then Athletic Bilbao and he completely discarded the style of play instilled by Barnes in the s. He was idiosyncratic and demanding and his Bilbao players would celebrate major victories by snatching his bowler hat and jumping on it until it was torn up into a rag. He then shifted back to Madrid in but by that time he had led Bilbao to two La Liga titles, four further Copa del Rey titles, and three more Biscay trophies — and saw his Bilbao side demolish Barcelona still their record defeat of all time.
Pentland then left Spain with the civil war approaching in He was a prolific striker for Athletic Bilbao and was part of the heroic Spanish side of the Olympics. Pozzo was no gifted player, but would spend time in academia in Zurich, Switzerland before moving to London in England where he fell in love with football and Manchester United. He held many formative discussions with the United half-back which would eventually lead to the tactics he deployed in his Italy sides of the later years.
Pozzo strongly disliked the third back game which was bubbling in England under Chapman covered in part III at the time and like Roberts, he wanted his central midfielders or half-backs to play more with the ball and have a wide passing range that could spread play down each flank with long diagonals and incisively through the middle. Italy lost narrowly to Finland and then beat Sweden, but were later thumped by Austria.
The pair would remain good friends off the pitch but were fierce rivals on the touchline in the coming years. He spent time as a director of Pirelli for the next five years before Italy came calling again in He would then guide Italy to glory for the next twenty years making them one of the strongest teams in Europe and arguably the best team in the world. He would drop back in defence and mark the centre forward when his team were without the ball, and he would move higher up the pitch and orchestrate attacks as the fulcrum when his side were in possession.
Pozzo, meanwhile, as manager of Italy, was also one of the earliest exponents of man marking. Belk, Gary J. The authors participated in an iterative process when analysing longitudinal and contemporary phenomenological data, in order to arrive at a consensus. This was grounded in: triangulating individual and collective researcher findings; critiquing relevant published material; and reflecting upon known reviewed manuscripts submitted to marketing publications — both successful and unsuccessful.
Given the size of Muslim populations globally and the critical importance of understanding Islam in the context of business and practices with local, regional and international ramifications, scholarship on Islamic marketing has become essential. Western commerce and scholarship has been conducted to a limited extent, and some evidence exists that research is occurring globally.
The topic is complex — and so while diverse expert opinions are cited, coverage of many issues is necessarily brief, due to space constraints. Practical implications — Scholars and practitioners alike should find the thoughts contained in the paper of significant interest.
Also the term Crescent marketing is introduced to highlight how critical cultural factors are, which shape perceptions and Islamic practises. Traditionally, marketers are the messengers who convey messages, which shape perceptions of marketplace realities, but this does not necessitate that they place themselves within these meanings — instead preferring to take a back seat, as architects and encoders.
Furthermore, previous analogies of marketers being orchestra conductors or architects also appear to have limitations. For savvy, engaged and information hungry tribes of consumers crave the knowledge that they are being served by marketers who share the same ideals and values. In support of these arguments, we have chosen to highlight a phenomenon which exemplifies such a movement: namely, the rise of Islamic marketing IM. Bringing faith, the divine, and the sacred as well as the profane so forthrightly into the marketing mix attracts greater scrutiny from all stakeholders, regardless of faith.
Furthermore, it is clear that rather than this phenomenon being a passing fad, it in fact appears to be a rapid heterodox evolutionary development in modern marketing. When searching through online message forums globally and reviewing conference agendas especially in the Muslim world, using netnographic methods Kozinets, , it is apparent that a growing number of Muslim consumers and businesspeople are now demanding that commodities are not only compatible with their own desires and beliefs, but also that these commodities and commerce take centre stage as part of a process of thought leadership and divine worship.
Whilst the desire is there and discussions are underway, finding published exemplars of such products and services globally, beyond promotional rhetoric, remains scarce. However, locally there is evidence of this trend amongst social entrepreneurs and small businesses. Knowledge, theory and practice in this field is still relatively new, both inside and outside of the Muslim community — and so this paper is positioned as a phenomenological treatise, looking to raise key questions and help identify promising areas of research.
However, a key question remains as to what underpins a collective faith and meeting of minds, where there exist intricate variables of culture, ethnicity, schools of thought, transnationalism, and interpretations behind the meanings and drivers of conspicuous consumption. Furthermore, if established, there is evidence to suggest that these may in JIMA fact be a moving feast, as the Muslim population is changing rapidly — due to 4,1 conversions; over half of the community being under the age of 24; and with this youth population being engaged in social hypercommunication, interactivity, and situational cultural hybridization Ogilvy Noor, ; Wilson, c; Wilson and Liu, Even with the global Muslim population at 1.
Also, if the wider landscape 24 of faith-based marketing is important, it could be argued polemically why there is no Catholic marketing 1. Sandikci and Ger, ; Wilson and Hollensen, It is worth noting that Kartajaya and Dwi Indiro have written a book which looks marketing and cultural practices in Ubud, a city village in Bali, Indonesia, which is underpinned by Hinduism, however again with Hindus totalling million globally, there is also no comparably overarching Hindu marketing subject discipline.
There are however books on Buddhist business and consumption practices Badiner, ; Kaza, , New Age capitalism Lau, , material Christianity McDannell, ; Moore, , the marketing and consumption of Christianity Einstein, ; Miller, ; Roof, ; Twitchell, , , Christianity and popular culture Forbes and Mahan, ; Lyon, ; Mazur and McCarthy, ; Schmidt, , the globalization of charismatic Christianity Coleman, , and the globalization of Eastern religions like Buddhism and Hinduism Campbell, ; Partridge, As this proliferation of titles suggests, there is much to study.
Islamic consumption and marketing, and scholarship to date have barely scratched the surface of relevant perspectives. Approach In line with the observations stated, the arguments developed in this paper are grounded in two principles. First that the method of interpreting phenomena is governed by the experiences and expertise of researchers engaged in the field.
And second, that the theory presented is contributing a new perspective: namely that the marketer or collective of marketers are an integral part of the authenticity and acceptance of the marketing proposition. We also find that identifying the emergent phenomenon of IM provides a fertile ground for new concepts critical to generative theory building.
Literature on IM, arguing for its significance and relevance, can be grouped largely into three observations and by extension, standpoints: 1 The economic argument: where data is presented and calculated to demonstrate the market potential through financial value; and future sustainability through population figures. Collectively, these three points suggest establishing IM as an important field; a school Crescent of thought; and on a macro level, a contributor of knowledge of relevance to marketing mainstream marketing.
Furthermore, these points can be summarised under one paradigm, which argues for IM reaching out beyond one religion and beyond Muslims. To this end, IM is positioned as being similar to other previous movements and groups, which have gravitated towards the mainstream, such as with Chinese management as an analogy Barney and Zhang, ; and also feminism; fair trade; Japanese culture 25 and total quality management; and black entertainment, amongst others.
As Islam is classified as a religion, such a positioning may be viewed by some as an inflammatory statement. However, we argue that Islam and Muslims articulate that they are not so much about being a religion by conventional interpretations; rather more accurately, a way of life and lifestyle choice — as a holistic lived experience, with Islam being intended to govern all decisions and judgements.
The key Arabic term used by Muslims is deen, which goes beyond the restricted sense of religion. Deen has no direct translation, but is used to describe faith, judgement, decision, allegiance, path, and way of life. Therefore, if individuals in a particular space and context can be defined according to, for example, feminism, capitalism, Marxism, hip-hop, football, or national identity, then this is their deen.
Whilst Islamic scholars may posit discussions back towards instructive and didactic religious texts, on another level, Islam also accepts the limitations of humans, their free will and differences, which have to be preserved. Interestingly, one of the further key themes from the Oxford Islamic Marketing and Branding Forum was whether Islamic branding and marketing could be used to tackle wider global issues affecting Muslims at a political, societal, and international level.
However, this may be a bit too ambitious and unrealistic. After all, IM is largely about having a better understanding of the diverse Muslim consumers and designing integrated marketing better placed to serve their needs. If the view is that social cohesion and mobility can be achieved through linking Islam and Muslim geographies with education, tailored product offerings, sympathetic messaging, and consumption linked with Islam made conspicuous — then perhaps scholars and industry can play a part in bridging gaps more successfully than in existing subject disciplines rooted in the humanities.
Due to the significance of this lived cultural experience, we use the allegory of the crescent — which is a powerful symbol not only in the Muslim world, but also in other Eastern religions hailing from India, China, and Japan. We argue that a new dawn is on the horizon — that can be observed by the sighting of a new moon, which craves authentically marketed value propositions, offered by marketers who stand side by side with their offerings.
Inspiration for this method was taken from Sidney J. From a Culture Theory perspective, he spoke of the necessity of researchers 26 being immersed within a sea of culture and that particular geographies and cultural settings required further intuitive interrogation. To this end, we participated in an iterative process when analysing longitudinal and contemporary phenomenological data, in order to arrive at a consensus.
The method of investigation draws on the expertise of the authors, as a panel of research active experts who serve on the editorial advisory board for the Journal of Islamic Marketing alongside other marketing journals. In tandem with their own research activities, serving on editorial boards offers them exposure to regular subject specific manuscript submissions and peer review feedback, which positions them firmly as experts in the field.
Based upon this emersion, research for this paper was conducted through an iterative process of investigation and knowledge sharing, in order to arrive at a collective consensus, which shares methodological parallels with modified Delphi studies Powell, The Delphi ideal is one of unearthing knowledge beyond truisms, and so cannot be assessed according to the usual psychological test criteria of reliability and validity.
We have to say that this process was engaging, highly informative and a great learning experience for all of us. It was not easy to arrive at a final consensus and it took the best part of a year to bounce ideas, write and revise the paper.
From the length of the paper, which was meant to be a relatively short viewpoint piece, it is perhaps also apparent that the size of topic and what still remains under researched is great. Furthermore, we were driven by a passionate and scholarly desire to capture enough of our experiences, in sufficient depth.
Also, we encourage other scholars and practitioners to document more of their discussions in a similar way — especially following conferences, business meetings, research workshops, and as part of exploratory studies.
Committing such discussions to print, documents valuable information and knowledge sharing, which perhaps might otherwise be lost, and is conducive to refining conceptual arguments. Reflections on key literature There has recently been a blossoming of research interest in IM and Islamic consumer behaviour Alserhan and Alserhan, Conferences and special issues of journals on IM offer further evidence listed in the references section.
Notably, all of these developments have been in English, as the English-speaking world seeks to discover more about Islam, Islamic Consumers, and 27 marketing to these consumers Jafari et al. These occurrences have contributed toward a period of global reorientation and JIMA is well situated to help stimulate scholarship and research on topics of increasingly vital interest Alserhan, b.
The study of Muslim consumers, Muslim entrepreneurs, branding and business practices in Muslim contexts has gained recent interest from academics and business practitioners from all over the world Wilson and Hollensen, , ; Wilson and Liu, , ; Temporal, ; Alserhan and Alserhan, ; Wilson, a-e. This rise of attention can be explained by the increasing economic, political, and cultural power of Muslims in Muslim-majority and minority countries as well as the emergence of a new middle class of Muslim consumers striving to strike a balance between their Islamic values and the marketplace offerings of the global consumer ethos Sandikci, ; Sobh et al.
In many Muslim countries like Turkey, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Gulf countries, the omnipresence or resurgence of Islam and religious values in shaping identities and informing behaviour, coupled with the accumulation of wealth and increasing integration of these countries into the global economy, have resulted in large segments of ultramodern and empowered Muslim consumers keen to partake in global consumer culture, yet striving to remain faithful to their Islamic values in their everyday practice Sandikci and Ger, ; Alserhan, a, c; Wong, The outcome is the emergence of negotiated multilayered Muslim identities and lifestyles worthy of exploration by both practitioners and academics.
There exists long-standing interest in cultural research, with some earlier work making comparisons of marketing and consumption between developing countries in the Islamic and Christian worlds, and Islamic consumption practices within what are predominantly Western, Christian markets Belk and Ger, ; Belk et al.
The driving factors of these studies, as seen by the authors of these papers are to show the dynamic and JIMA changing character of Islamic consumption practices, focusing attention on issues of 4,1 gender, modernity, and inter-ethnic relations in the Muslim world. Not only are the academic and business markets anxious for such research, the mutual definition of self and other is 28 thrown into high definition in a globalizing and shrinking world.
As in other multinational contexts, there are issues of how to respect and become more knowledgeable about Islamic values, to appreciate the multiple cultures of Islam, to become aware of the competing swirl of values within Islamic societies and between Islamic and non-Islamic societies, and to envision new opportunities for greater cultural and marketing exchanges Abdullah, ; Ahmed, ; Sandikci and Ger, ; Wilson and Liu, The implications for practitioners are that there are numerous opportunities apparent for marketing in Islamic cultures.
There are also numerous challenges for Islamic businesses to market consumer goods globally. The resources exist to become more of a global player beyond merely marketing to the Islamic Diaspora, acting as an invisible part of the global supply chain, or buying up existing businesses. But there are barriers in terms of entrepreneurial skills, education, and global market stereotypes and expectations Wilson, a, b, e. While it is increasingly easy to find treatments about marketing to the Islamic consumer, it is difficult to find much of anything about marketing by the Islamic businessperson.
Given the great history of Islamic merchants, this is ironic. Shaping the crescent marketing phenomenon The following section groups the main literature findings, existing empirical data, and expert observations, in order to establish a basis for further theoretical developments. By shifting attention onto the symbolism of the moon, we wanted to move away from that of the sun — which is often used to reflect upon notions of rising and setting enlightenment and power in the East and West.
The sun is essential to the daily worship of Muslims, governing times of prayer — but the lunar cycle sets the Muslim calendar and dictates when further worship such as fasting should be observed. Because of this, some older Orientalist texts have previously made erroneous and derogatory assertions that Muslims are moon worshippers, which fuelled critical responses from Said Our focus is on encouraging a longer-term and cyclical perspective towards IM — across the sacred, profane and mundane.
Furthermore, the symbolism of the moon has also been linked with the East, seduction, passion, romanticism, lunacy, irrationality, and darkness with all of its relative connotations. It is apparent that IM is open to misunderstandings and suspicion — as this newly found passion is sometimes eclipsed by aspersions in some quarters of lunacy and irrationality. From these, we argue that the full emotional experience of participants and observers within the field of IM should be examined.
Anecdotally, the crescent was not originally a symbol of Islam, but came afterwards — perhaps in response to the strong symbolism of other faiths such as Christianity, or through embracing the significance of the crescent in other Eastern religions and cultures. We have reflected upon this final point and considered whether IM is Crescent following the same path. First, is it an offensive or defensive stance in response to marketing Christian-centric theoretical marketing iconography?
And second, could it even entertain the idea of pluralism — as Islam states that everything is permissible, unless stated otherwise? Table I. Key discussions 29 The following phenomena are held to be the most significant topics, which will influence how practitioners serve these growing markets and Muslim geographies.
Comparably, it is suggested that these are the areas most in need of further empirical investigation and academic research. Neo-spiritualism is a term we use to extend the frame of reference offered by the Arabic word deen, to also encompass Consumer Culture Theory — to mirror the phenomenon of how consumerism and consumption linked to Islam has risen in the twenty-first century. Instead, understanding a Muslim culture of dynamic social networks and nodes of socialisation, linked with possessions, rituals, space, time and context is vital.
For some, spirituality is governed by Islam, but this spiritual observance can also share commonalities with music and sport practices — both of which have fan atic s. Therefore, at this stage of discovery, the social sciences can offer contributions beyond those of theologians, concerning Muslim and interconnected non-Muslim thoughts, feelings, and actions in the widest sense.
First and foremost, marketing is concerned with the needs and desires of humans — and to some extent needs to maintain a level of hermeneutical apoliticism, non-partisanship, and even irreligiosity. This may seem like a strange recommendation within the field of IM, however we believe that even within orthodox Islam there is a similar pursuit. Central to Islam is the concept of negation, followed by acceptance.
The first part of the declaration of Muslim faith, the shahadah, which all Muslims must proclaim, reaffirm frequently, and adhere to, is split into two parts. Moving forward, Muslims seem set to gravitate toward greater collaborative consumption and new ways of interpreting what faith means — and how it shapes life in the here and now.
This could mean that the role of the imam religious leader or scholar changes. Rather than being autocratic sources of knowledge and verdicts, they will be brought into an arena of democratic collaboration and consultation with the wider Muslim community using the internet and social media. This is especially evident with Muslim youth, who check and check again, and are engaged in hypercommunication via wide ranging transnational social media sources. Increase in business and management courses with Islamic studies content and Muslim languages globally 30 Emerging market overlap China has as an estimated million Muslims.
India has million Muslims. Growing number of Hispanic and Latino Muslims Emerging markets Indonesia: university figures, social media, political imperative. With 17, islands, Indonesia is the most populous Muslim nation, with million Muslims English language significance The shift towards the use of English in trade and commerce. The rise in English language Islamic instruction and materials. A key factor being that the majority of Muslims are non-native Arabic language speakers, whilst Arabic remains the language of Islam Evangelical conspicuous The role of symbolism in affirming and celebrating a strong consumption religious and contemporary identity, beyond mere shariah compliance.
Single issue politic and boycott groups, also with alternative product offerings, e. The growth in halal certification bodies Halal living Music, films, entertainment, comedy, art, and fashion. Halal certified hotels and holiday packages. Visibly vocal and practising Muslim entertainment artists and athletes. Muhammad Ali and Yusuf Islam perhaps being the catalysts Halal supply chains Logistics and supply chain processes in compliance with shariah principles Islamic finance and banking The growth of shariah compliant financial models and offerings, including: microfinance, insurance takaful and bonds sukuk Manufacture and commodities Nine of the top ten oil and gas reserves Iranian and Malaysian car manufacturing agreements.
Joint ventures with Korean and French car manufacturers. Branded inconspicuous and conspicuous formed consumer identities. Aesthetic attractive modesty as a proselytizing instrument. Notably, the Arab religiosity Spring and single issue politics boycott movements Social media religious The internet as a resource for information gathering and instruction knowledge sharing. Online searches for religious and legal verdicts; halal and ingredient verification. Prayer timetable and compass Apps Spiritual tourism Packages framed as holidays, which allow for worship and pilgrimage, while enjoying recreational and social activities Sports and sponsorships The rise in sports competitions, and professional training facilities in the Gulf region.
Sponsorship of Soccer and Rugby football teams and stadiums. World Cup in Qatar The Prophet of profithood The Prophet Muhammad and his companions as timeless exemplars for both marketers and consumers. A focus not just on LifeTime value, but also AfterLifetime value Tourist hubs The Gulf region as a both a tourist destination and stop-over.
Brunei Halal Hub Tribal sub-culture Muslim youth mediating complex situation specific identities. A hybridization key observation being the significant influence of Afro-American culture and civil rights movements. Notable examples being: Malcolm-X, Hip hop, fashion, and food. Citizen journalists and user generated content sharing lived experiences, which look to lift the veil.
For example, reasons for conversion; various fashionable ways to tie a headscarf Unifying concept of Ummah A global Muslim identity, which crosses socio-economic groups, and its interplay with cultural ethnicities, and nations — most evident when observing Muslim nation branding pilgrims in Mecca Note: In alphabetical order, rather than ranking according to significance Table I.
A notable example of this can be taken from the Arab Spring — where communities mobilized themselves using social media, in a form of leaderless opposition. Conversions and reversions to Islam More commonly in the fields of sociology and political science, there has been a growing interest into the drivers behind an increase in Islamic observance. It has been postulated that this is particularly interesting, due to its visibility in the West.
A culture of freedom of expression supported by legislation, have allowed culturally born Muslims an opportunity to soul search and question their faith. Commitment and adherence to Islam can be most visibly observed by 4,1 the number of females wearing headscarves; the construction of mosques; and prayer rooms in workplaces, commercial spaces like airports, and academic institutions.
A reoccurring question often posed is why this is happening amongst Muslim citizens in the West, when it was thought that freedom of choice, liberalism, and exposure to other ways of life would in fact neuter a faith such as Islam — which 32 mandates that its practising followers adhere to so many prescriptive and regular guidelines?
Dress codes, regular prayer five times a day from dawn to night, visits to the mosque, dietary codes, fasting for at least one month a year, taxes on wealth, and learning Arabic are some of the main activities, which Muslims find challenging even within Muslim countries — where societies are designed to assist Muslims in these duties. In comparison in the West, Muslims have to work hard to find time and a place to pray at work.
And during the fasting month of Ramadan, unlike in Muslim countries, the working day is not adapted to coincide with when Muslims can break their fast and eat again. These examples it is argued are testament to the passion and steadfastness with which some Muslims in the West are practising their faith.
The focus of this paper is not to try and offer reasons as to why there are more practising Muslims in the West, but rather to make the following observations. The ethnic and cultural diversity of Muslims in the West is great. Furthermore, there are a growing number of Western educated and affluent home-grown Muslims, who can no longer be classified or dismissed according to Occidentalist and Orientalist constructs.
These two factors alone have transformed how Islam is interpreted and practised, which poses challenges. What this means within the field of marketing is that generalisations and inferences according to ethnicity, country of origin, cultural heritage and even the names of individuals will become less reliable and insightful. A simple indicator of this fact can be seen when surveying national sports teams and athletes — where it is clear that Islam is a culture, but not necessarily one denoted by ethnicity, heritage, or national identity.
Muslim athletes compete for many non-Muslim countries and yet in the widest sphere outside of sports, there remain many studies, which assume the seamless interchange between ethnic, national, and religious classifications, as being sufficiently similar Wilson and Liu, In addition, it is likely that many Muslim consumption patterns may externally resemble other consumer groups, but intrinsically may paint a very different picture.
However, what changes is how they wear these items and where. Anecdotally, even shopping malls overlooking the Kaaba considered by Muslims to be the holiest place and centre of the universe in Mecca sell high street Western fashion and lingerie.
Therefore, a key recommendation of the authors is that more work needs to be done to unveil and unpack consumption patterns, identities, possessions, and the extended-self — from emic and etic perspectives, linked to internationalization, globalization, and localization. Without these, the development of Crescent IM will be hampered and skewed. Especially in the UK, halal foods and finance products have grown in popularity Wilson and Liu, Cases in practice are fast-food chains and banks 33 offering halal permissible commodities and practices according to Islam.
The UK is also seen as being a hub for Islamic finance activities, which affect the Muslim world. Furthermore, the fact that branded halal goods are so important now within Muslim majority countries as has never been seen before, despite always producing halal products, is an indicator that Muslim consumption practices globally have changed Wilson and Liu, In stark contrast, the French have been less receptive.
Their interpretations have argued that rather than encouraging social cohesion and integration; more halal products sold on home soils pose a cultural threat. A recent article reported that close to one-third of meat in France is in fact slaughtered according to compliance with Islamic law, but is only labelled as such if it is intended for Muslim consumption. The reasons given are that it is easier commercially to produce for any consumer, but not all consumers may wish to consume products branded in the same way.
However, in the UAE and Malaysia this is for positive, inclusive, and pluralistic reasons Wilson and Liu, — as opposed to the mood of negative opposition expressed in France. Perhaps slightly hypocritically, many European nations, Australia, and New Zealand are more comfortable exporting halal products to Muslim territories, so this appears to be a highly politicised phenomena, linked to fears of control and the rise of Islam in Europe and the West.
Some would argue that the fears are legitimate, as Islamic extremism has been linked with terrorism. However, we suggest that restricting the production and sale of things such as food is both draconian and makes poor business sense. Research points to products such as Islamic finance also being consumed by non-Muslims, for many reasons — ranging from, shared values within the Abrahamic faiths, assurances that funds will not be invested in gambling and pornography, through to foreign policy.
Or is it that they see Islam as not just being the property of Muslim nations? Therefore, is it that they are open to inspiration and truth wherever it exists? Evidence for the last perspective lies in the increase in visible practices of Islam by Muslim youth — most notably in their dress and the conversations on the internet, which are there for all to see. And more importantly by inference it supports the idea that the strongest brands, media platforms, and educational systems lie outside of the hands and inception of the Muslim world, which profiles Muslims as being intellectually impoverished.
Therefore, if this is the case, Muslims may now and in the future be profiled as romantics who were once great, but now live in the shadow of the enlightened West. Gaining insight into stakeholder perceptions — concerning individual and group identities, are central components of any good marketing. Arguably, the youth market is tough: because how many brands can predict whether they will be the next cult, or cool thing — especially when tastes change so quickly?
Furthermore, if consideration is given to the fact that Muslim youth are balancing adherence to their faith which is taken from information largely based upon classical texts , with living in the here and now meaning that some texts have to be brought up to speed with the world today — then there are plenty of debates to be had. Among the younger generation especially, patterns are being broken up by additional displays of conspicuous and inconspicuous consumption — the all-important accessorising and customising.
However, an alternative view would be that jeans are technically comparable with, for example, female Pakistani shalwar trousers, or in fact are a step up — as they have more practical uses. Furthermore, whether to wear jeans or not is not the key issue — it is how, when, and where. Comparably, non-Muslim youth are also adopting similar dress patterns.
Non-Muslim females can be seen wearing jeans under skirts and pashmina scarves. Also, Arab scarves in new vibrant colours have become an edgy urban chic accessory — in the same way that Che Guevara pictures appear on the walls and t-shirts of fashionable would-be revolutionaries.
When examining music trends and tastes, Wilson c writes about the global cultural, ethnic, class, and marketing significance of the hip-hop phenomenon in general. Literature exists which documents how political hip-hop has grown in popularity within Crescent the Muslim world, and in tandem there are reports of Islamic hip-hop culture influencing marketing religiosity in born Muslims and the decision of non-Muslims to convert to Islam Wilson, c. Therefore, in light of these observations, we argue that more research into the link between Islam, Muslims, and hip-hop is an area also in need of further study, especially as JIMA has currently received no submissions in this area.
Muslim youth appear to be keen to assert their identity as a generation of informed, self-mediating, empowered, and technologically savvy urbanites. For them, heritage is progressive: they embrace the eradication of hierarchy and knowledge that simply translates to power. So perhaps it could be argued that there is a renaissance back to the early golden days — where Islam gifted social mobility and empowerment through structured innovation.
Anecdotally, there is a science fiction tabletop miniature wargame called Infinity, set years in the future. Within it there are nine factions: 1 PanOceania: derived from Western civilizations. Whilst this is only science fiction, we nevertheless found some of these classifications interesting. Faction Haqqislam Haq being Arabic for truth are cited as having evolved as a response to fundamentalism: Haqqislam bases its culture on an Islam which is humanist, philosophical and in continuous contact with nature.
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